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Beach-Spawning Fishes Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem

Langue : Anglais

Auteur :

Couverture de l’ouvrage Beach-Spawning Fishes

Beach-spawning fishes from exotic locations on most continents of the world provide spectacular examples of extreme adaptations during the most vulnerable life cycle stages. The beauty, intriguing biology, and importance of these charismatic fishes at the interface of marine and terrestrial ecosystems have inspired numerous scientific studies. Adaptations of behavior, physiology, development, and ecology are gathered together for the first time in this book. Beach-Spawning Fishes: Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem is a comprehensive guide to beach spawning, a charismatic animal behavior that is seen in a surprising number of teleost species. This unexpected form of reproduction provides a window into the ecology of coastal areas, the behaviors and physiology necessary for fishes and their eggs to adapt to terrestrial conditions, and the threats and challenges for conservation and management. Beach-spawning species include important forage fishes such as the capelin, exotic fishes such as the fugu puffer, and the spectacular midnight runs of the California grunion.

A Leap of Faith: Evolution of Beach Spawning Behavior

Overview of Biogeography andEcologyof Beach-Spawning Fishes

Fish Families with Many Intertidal Species Also Have Many Species that Spawn on Beaches

Some Lineages Indicate Independent Originsof Beach-Spawning Behavior

Some Teleost Fish Species Spawn on Beaches and Other Habitats

Lineages that Include Multiple Species of Beach-Spawning Fishes Show Multiple Independent Origins of this Behavior

The Leap of Faith, Plastic Behavior, and Evolution

Surf, Sand, and Beach: Physical Conditions of Shore Habitats for Fishes

Tidal Ebb and Flow Alter Habitat Conditions Rapidly and Predictably on Beaches

Some Fish Species Are Resident in the Intertidal Zones During All Parts of the Tidal Cycle; Others Visit only at High Tide

Beach Spawning Usually Occurs During High Tides for Fishes

Beach Spawning Behavior in Fishes May Not involve Air-Breathing

Beach Spawning Occurs on Specific Substrates

Few Species of Freshwater Fishes Spawn at the Water’s Edge

Air, Fresh Water and Sea Water Have Very Different Properties As Respiratory Media

Beach Spawning Fishes Are Global in Distribution

Locals only: Beach Spawning Behavior in Resident intertidal Fishes

Many Teleosts Reproduce with Pelagic Eggs

Beach Spawning Fishes Produce Demersal Eggs

Diverse Mating Behaviors and Mating Systems Are Seen in Beach-Spawning Fishes that Are Intertidal Residents

Fishes that Reside in the Rocky Intertidal Zone Spawn on the Rocky Beach

Fishes in Estuaries Spawn on Beaches at the Water’s Edge Or on Intertidal Mudflats

Summary of Beach Spawning By Resident Intertidal Fishes

Vacation Sex: Subtidal Fishes that Make Spawning Migrations to the Beach

Some Species Migrate into the Rocky Intertidal Zone to Spawn

Some Species Migrate onto Gravel Beaches to Spawn

Some Fishes Migrate onto Sandy Beaches to Spawn

Some Fishes Spawn on Intertidal Or Nearshore Vegetation

Some Beach Spawning Fishes Are Anadromous Or Catadromous

Some Fishes Appear to Be Making a Transition Toward Beach Spawning

Summary for Fishes that Migrate From Other Habitats to Spawn on Beaches

Catching A Breath: Beach Spawning Fishes and Air-Breathing

How Are Emergence and Air-Breathing Beneficial for Beach Spawning Fishes?

Intertidal Fishes Show Gradients of Amphibious Behavior and Air-Breathing

Respiratory Structures for Amphibious Fishes Are Similar for Water and Air

Respiratory Structures Undergo Modification as Conditions Change

Metabolic Rate in Air During Emergence Is Similar to Metabolic Rate in Water for Many Amphibious Fishes

Terrestrial Activity Increases the Rate of Aerial Gas Exchange for Amphibious Fishes

Many Amphibious Fishes Show Hypoxia Tolerance

Estuarine Fishes that Spawn on Beaches May Breathe Air Whether Or Not they Emerge

Fishes that Migrate into the Intertidal Zone and Emerge During Beach Spawning Do Not Breathe Air

The Gas Bladder Has Non-Respiratory Functions in Beach Spawning Fishes

Air Emergence Has Physiological Consequences for Fishes

Summary and Consequences: Adults Have Greater Physiological Tolerance to Hypoxia than Embryos; Embryos Are Better Suited for Air Exposure

Unsafe Sex: the Dangers of Novel Predators and Other Terrestrial influences for Beach-Spawning Fishes and their Embryos

Marine and Avian Predators Attack Beach Spawning Fishes in the Ocean

Marine and Terrestrial Predators Attack During Beach Spawning Runs

Predation Occurs on Incubating Eggs and Embryos on Beaches

Egg Predation Occurs By Cannibalism During Spawning and Incubation on the Beach

Predation May Occur in the Nest on Guarding Parents and Embryos

Human Fisheries Target Some Beach Spawning Fishes

Parasites Attack Beach Spawning Fishes From Within

Beach Babes: Terrestrial Incubation and Beach-Spawning Fishes

Demersal Eggs Are Well Suited for Beach Spawning

The Chorion Surrounds and Protects the Embryo

Oviposition Height Is Species-Specific and Mediates Between Opposing Risks of Aquatic Hypoxia and Aerial Desiccation

Embryos on Beaches May Incubate for Long Periods of Time

Some Beach-Spawning Fishes Have Environmental Sex Determination

Embryos Develop Terrestrially to Hatching Competence

Some Species Wait for An Environmental Cue to Hatch

Perilous Return to the Sea: Hatching After Beach Incubation

Incubation on Beaches Exposes Fish Embryos to the Danger of Hatching on Land

Hatchlings Must Navigate the Perilous Return to the Sea

Hatching Competence Requires the Appropriate Stage of Development

Hatching Is a Two-Stage Process involving Chemical and Mechanical Steps

Hatching May Be Initiated Or Synchronized By Environmental Cues

The Mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus Hatches in Response to A Chemical Cue, Aquatic Hypoxia

The California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis Hatches in Response to A Mechanical Cue, Agitation in Seawater

The Mudskipper Periophthalmus modestus Hatches in Response to Parental Intervention and Aquatic Hypoxia

Extended Incubation May Arrest Development But Differs From Metabolic Arrest During Diapause

Summary of the Challenges and Mechanisms for Hatching on Beaches

Coastal Squeeze: New Threats to Beach Spawning Fishes and their Critical Habitats

Coastal Construction and Shoreline Armoring Alter Beaches

Pollution of Water and Land Can Harm Fishes at All Life Stages

Some Beach Spawning Fishes Are Caught By Commercial or Recreational Fishing

Maintenance Activities and Management Actions Can Affect Spawning Sites on Recreational Beaches

Industrial Activities Near Beaches Can Impact Fishes

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise May Cause Loss of Beach Habitat

Summary of New Threats to Beach Spawning Fishes

Waves of Passion: Conservation Efforts for Beach Spawning Fishes

California Greets the Grunion

Beach-Spawning Fishes Have Friends on the Shoreline in Washington State

Canadians Care About Capelin

Kusafugu Are Cultural Treasures in Japan

Celebrations of Beach Spawning Fishes in Sausalito, California

Whitebaiters in New Zealand Protect their Recreation

Forage Fish Initiatives Address Ecological Concerns

Summary: Local Ecological Knowledge Is Needed for Conservation

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