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Powerful Pulsed Plasma Generators, 1st ed. 2018 Research and Application Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics Series, Vol. 101

Langue : Anglais

Auteurs :

Couverture de l’ouvrage Powerful Pulsed Plasma Generators

This book presents experimental and theoretical results on extremely powerful plasma generators. It addresses pulsed electrical mega-ampere arcs and the mechanisms of energy transfer from the arc into hydrogen, helium and air under pressures up to 250 MPa and currents up to 2 MA. Extreme plasma parameters and increased energy density in the arc were achieved. It was found experimentally that increasing the initial gas pressure to hundreds of MPa leads to improved arc stability, high efficiency of energy transfer from arc to gas, and plasma enthalpy growth. The data obtained data provides the basis for the development of electrophysical devices with high energy density, e.g. high intensity sources for visible, UV and X-ray irradiation for laser pumping, generators of high enthalpy plasma jets, and plasma chemical reactors.

1.Introduction……….………………………………...................….…………………..              14

References……………………………………………………………………………...        21

2        Test Benches of the IEE RAS’ Pulsed Plasma Generators..….................................      25

2.1     Construction and Equipment of Test Benches………….....…….........................    25

2.2     Power Supplies of the Plasma Generators.……..………………..........................    26

2.2.1      Capacitive Power Supply CPS-25……………………………………...      26

2.2.2      Capacitive Power Supply CPS-10……………….……..........................     32

2.3     Components of Power Supply………..…………….………..……….…………       36

2.4     Diagnostic Methods and Measurement Equipment..…………...……………….      39

2.4.1      Initial Parameters of Experiment…….………………….……………...      39

2.4.2      Pulsed Current…..…………….…………….…………...……………..       40

2.4.3      Voltage Drop Across Arc……....…………………...…..……………..       41

2.4.4      Pulsed Pressure……….………………………………………………..        42

2.4.5      Optical Registration…….………………………………………………       44

2.4.6      X-Rays Registration……………………………………………………       46

2.4.7      Data Registration and Processing System…………....….……………..      48

References……………………………………………………….……………….…….        49

3.Pulsed Plasma Generators……………………………………………………………………..51

3.1     Types of Electrodischarge Chambers………………..………....………………..      51

3.2     IEE RAS’ Pulsed Plasma Generators………………….……….……………….        57

3.2.1    Design of Plasma Generators………….……………...……....................     57

3.3     Components of Plasma Generators’ Electrodischarge Chambers…..….……….      66

References………………………………………………………..….…………………        75

4        Parameters of the Arc..…..….....…………………………..…..…………………….        77

4.1     Resistance……..…………….….………….……..……...………………………       77

4.2     Electric Feld Intensity in Generator PPG-3……………………………………..        83

4.3     Current Density………………………………….………...................................       90

4.4     Inductance…………………..……..…………..……….…………………...…...       90

4.5     Temperature..……………..……………….……………….………………….....       91

References………………………………………………………….………………......        94

 

5.ErosionofElectrodes………...………………………………...…….……………..….            96

5.1         Specific Erosion of Electrodes.………………………………………………………....96

5.2         Liquid and Vapor Erosions.…………….……………….……..……..……….    101

5.3         Erosion as Electrode Jets…..………………..….…………….………………..    107

5.4         Erosion as Electrode Surface Layer Ejection…………….…...…….………….  111

5.5     Erosion and Molecular Weight of Gas……..……………….............................     114

References………………………………………………………….………………...        116

6        Oscillations of Arc’ s Diameter……………….…………………….........................      118

6.1     Acoustic Oscillations……………………….…...……..……….……………...       118

6.2     Shock-Wave Compression of Arc..………….……….…..….….……………..      122

6.3     Oscillations of Arc’s Diameter Caused by Magnetic and Gas Pressures………    125

6.4     Oscillations of Soft X-Rays Irradiation Intensity……………………………...      126

References………………………………………………………….………………...        130

 

7        Processes and Heat Transfer in Electrodischarge Chamber.....………..………..       131

7.1     Arcing in Coaxial Discharge Chamber……………….………….....................      131

7.2     Arc Movement…………………...…….……………..……….….……………       137

7.3     Heat Transfer from Arc to Gas………………………………….……………..       141

7.3.1      Irradiation…………………………………………….....……………       141

7.3.2      Thermal Conductivity…………….……………………..……………      143

7.3.3      Turbulent Heat Transfer…………..………………….….……………      144

7.3.4      Shock Waves………..……………………………………..................      145

7.3.5      Shock Waves in Hydrogen….……………………….……………….      146

7.3.6      Shock Waves in Helium..……………………….……………………       146

7.3.7      Shock Waves in Air……….………………………….………………       150

7.3.8      Impact of Electrode Jets on Heat Transfer………..……..……………    152

7.4     Energy in Arc and Heat Transfer Components…..………...………………….      156

References…………………………………………………………….……………...        157

 

8        Modes of Arcing………………….……………………………..….……………….         159

8.1     Arc at Refractory Electrodes………...……………………...……....................      159

8.2     Arc at Fusible Electrodes……………...………………………….....................      163

8.3     Multipulse Mode……………….……………….……………………………...       164

8.4     Two-Arc Mode………………………..…..……………………………………       166

8.5     Programmable Mode……………………….…………………..………………       168

References………………………………………………..…………………………..        171

 

9        Arc Contraction. Modified Current of Piza-Braginskii…………………………..       172

9.1     Arc at Initial Hydrogen Pressure of 5 MPa…………………………………...        172

9.2     Discharge in Helium……………………..……...............................................       177

9.3     500 kA Arc at Tungsten Electrodes……..…………………………………….       180

9.4     1.6 MA Arc at Steel Electrodes………………………………………………..       185

9.5     Soft X-Rays Irradiation………………………………….…….………………        188

9.6     Heating of Hydrogen by X-Ray Irradiation….....……………………………..       189

9.7     Arc Glow Change at Contraction…….…………...…….……........................        191

References………………………………………………………….……….………..        191

 

10      Arc at Ultrahigh Pressure….………………...………………….………………….       194

10.1     Arc in Pre-Compressed Gas………………...………………...........................     194

10.2     Arc at Current of 220 kA………...………….……………...………………...      201

10.3     Arc at Current of 500 kA.…..………………..…………….…………….…..       207

10.4     Arc at Current of 2 МА.……………………………………...………………       212

10.5     Critical Pisa-Braginskii Current………..……….……………..…………….         213

References………………………………………………………….………………...        220

 

11      Energy Features of Plasma Generator………………………..………….………..       223

11.1     Energy Transfer Coefficients…………………………..…......……………...      223

11.2     Simulation of Plasma Generators Processes.………………….……………..       228

References………………………………………………………….………………...        230

 

12           Applications of Pulsed Plasma Generators………………………………………..     231

12.1          Application of Plasma Generators in Scientific Researches………………….     231

12.2          Application of Plasma Generators for Toxic Substances Destruction…….…     233

References………………………………………………………….………………...        235

Index……………………………………………………...…………….…..........................       236 

V. Kolikov: has been working at the Institute for Electromechanics, Academy of Science of USSR (now the Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power, Russian Academy of Science) since 1967, first as a Laboratory Assistant and now as Vice Director. He has published 159 papers and one book, and holds five patents. In 2005 he received his Science Doctor Degree from the IEE RAS.

A. Bogomaz: was born in Leningrad, USSR in 1943. He graduated from the Physical Faculty of Leningrad State University in 1967 and completed his Ph.D. in electrophysics at the Institute of Problems of Electrophysics (St.-Petersburg) in 1981. Now he is a leading researcher at the Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power, Russian Academy of Sciences (IEE RAS, St. Petersburg). He is the author or co-author of more than 100 papers. His chief scientific interests are in the electrical technology and physics of high-current discharge in high and ultrahigh pressure gas.  

A. Budin: was born in Frankfurt on Oder, Germany, in 1956. He received his M.S. degree from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, Russia in 1979 and his Ph.D. degree in electrophysics from the Institute of Problems of Electrophysics in 1997. He is currently head of the laboratory at the Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power, Russian Academy of Science. His main areas of scientific activity are the physics of high current arc discharges in dense gas media, electrodischarge accelerators and hypervelocity impact, pulse plasma generators and pulse power sources. He is the author or co-author of more than 160 papers. 

Provides essential information on the physics of pulsed megaampere and megajoule electric discharges in gases of superhigh density

Offers guidance on how to design electrodischarge chambers for electrical pulse generators

Explains the latest applications of plasma generators

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