Personalised medicine offers new opportunities for treatment and improved patient outcome. This special topic issue explains why the European Union (EU) is well positioned to bring such innovation into healthcare systems. Despite the fact that healthcare largely remains a member state responsibility, the need for the EU to act as a neutral platform is urgent. Many face the issues of integrating personalised medicine into healthcare. By recognising the importance and the complexity of integration, the EU can continue to gain confidence and respect from the many stakeholders. From pharmaceuticals and patients to scientific and medical developments this publications reviews all aspects of policy. It also suggests solutions covering the view points of various stakeholders. Addressing a multidisciplinary audience interested in personalised medicine, this issue should be read by policy makers, institutional officials, medical professionals, healthcare planners, regulators, patient representatives, public health professionals, and politicians.