This book provides the reader with a user-friendly guide to the evidence-based science and the merit behind the diagnostic imaging studies performed in medicine. This book gives the reader a clinically relevant overview of epidemiology, selection of subjects for imaging, selection of imaging strategies, imaging test performance and cost, cost-effectiveness analysis, and applicability to children. Nine major areas of medical imaging are covered, with an emphasis on common diseases. These include Oncology (i.e., lung and breast cancer), Neuroimaging (i.e., Alzheimer's disease and stroke), Gastroenterology (i.e., appendicitis and diverticulitis), Pediatrics (i.e., intussusception and spinal dysraphism), Respiratory System (i.e., sinusitis and pulmonary embolism), Musculoskeletal (i.e., osteomyelitis and septic arthritis), Cardiovascular (i.e., aortic dissection and carotid artery disease), Trauma (i.e., abdomen and head trauma), and Urologic (i.e., nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infection). Radiologists, clinicians, residents, and others with an interest in medical imaging and a desire to keep current with the vast amount of evidence-based literature will find this text extremely useful.