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Power System SCADA and Smart Grids

Langue : Anglais

Auteurs :

Couverture de l’ouvrage Power System SCADA and Smart Grids

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids brings together in one concise volume the fundamentals and possible application functions of power system supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The text begins by providing an overview of SCADA systems, evolution, and use in power systems and the data acquisition process. It then describes the components of SCADA systems, from the legacy remote terminal units (RTUs) to the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), data concentrators, and master stations, as well as: Examines the building and practical implementation of different SCADA systems.

Offers a comprehensive discussion of the data communication, protocols, and media usage.

Covers substation automation (SA), which forms the basis for transmission, distribution, and customer automation. Addresses distribution automation and distribution management systems (DA/DMS) and energy management systems (EMS) for transmission control centers. Discusses smart distribution, smart transmission, and smart grid solutions such as smart homes with home energy management systems (HEMs), plugged hybrid electric vehicles, and more. Power System SCADA and Smart Grids is designed to assist electrical engineering students, researchers, and practitioners alike in acquiring a solid understanding of SCADA systems and application functions in generation, transmission, and distribution systems, which are evolving day by day, to help them adapt to new challenges effortlessly. The book reveals the inner secrets of SCADA systems, unveils the potential of the smart grid, and inspires more minds to get involved in the development process.

Preface

The Authors

Power System Automation

Introduction

Evolution of Automation Systems

History of Automation Systems

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems

Components of SCADA Systems

SCADA Applications

SCADA in Power Systems

SCADA Basic Functions

SCADA Application Functions

Advantages of SCADA in Power Systems

Deferred Capital Expenditure

Optimized Operation and Maintenance Costs

Equipment Condition Monitoring (ECM)

Sequence of Events (SOE) Recording

Power Quality Improvement

Data Warehousing for Power Utilities

Power System Field

Transmission and Distribution Systems

Customer Premises

Types of Data and Signals in Power Systems

Flow of Data from the Field to the SCADA Control Center

Organization of the Book

Summary

Bibliography

SCADA Fundamentals

Introduction

Open System: Need and Advantages

Building Blocks of SCADA Systems

Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)

Evolution of RTUs

Components of RTU

Communication Subsystem

Logic Subsystem

Termination Subsystem

Testing and Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Subsystem

Power Supplies

Advanced RTU Functionalities

Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)

Evolution of IEDs

IED Functional Block Diagram

Hardware and Software Architecture of the IED

IED Communication Subsystem

IED Advanced Functionalities

Tools for Settings, Commissioning, and Testing

Programmable LCD Display

Typical IEDs

Data Concentrators and Merging Units

RTUs, IEDs, and Data Concentrator

Merging Units and IEDs

SCADA Communication Systems

Master Station

Master Station Software Components

Master Station Hardware Components

Server Systems in the Master Station

Small, Medium, and Large Master Stations

Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

Master Station Performance

Human-Machine Interface (HMI)

HMI Components

HMI Software Functionalities

Situational Awareness

Intelligent Alarm Filtering: Need and Technique

Alarm Suppression Techniques

Operator Needs and Requirements

Building the SCADA Systems, Legacy, Hybrid, and New Systems

Classification of SCADA Systems

Single Master–Single Remote

Single Master–Multiple RTU

Multiple Master–Multiple RTUs

Single Master, Multiple Submaster, Multiple Remote

SCADA Implementation: A Laboratory Model

The SCADA Laboratory

System Hardware

System Software

SCADA Lab Field Design

Case Studies in SCADA

"Kentucky Utility Fires Up Its First SCADA System"

"Ketchikan Public Utilities Finds Solutions to Outdated, Proprietary RTUs"

"Overwhelmed by Alarms: The Blackout Puts Filtering and Suppression Technologies in the Spotlight"

"North Carolina Municipal Power Agency Boosts Revenue by Replacing SCADA"

Summary

Bibliography

SCADA Communication

Introduction

SCADA Communication Requirements

Smart Grid Communication Infrastructure

Quality of Services (QoS)

Interoperability

Scalability

Security

Standardization

SCADA Communication Topologies

Point to Point and Multi-Drop

Bus Topology

Ring Topology

Star Topology

Mesh Topology

Data Flow: Simplex and Duplex

SCADA Data Communication Techniques

Master-Slave

Peer-to-Peer

Multi-Peer (Broadcast and Multicast)

Data Communication

Components of a Data Communication System

Transmission of Digital Signals

Modes of Digital Data Communication

Error Detection Techniques

Media Access Control (MAC) Techniques

SCADA Communication Protocol Architecture

OSI Seven-Layer Model

Enhanced Performance Architecture (EPA) Model

TCP/IP Model

Evolution of SCADA Communication Protocols

SCADA and Smart Grid Protocols

Modbus

IEC 60870-5-101/103/104

Distributed Network Protocol 3 (DNP3)

Inter-Control Center Protocol (ICCP)

Ethernet

IEC 61850

IEEE C37.118: Synchrophasor Standard

Wireless Technologies for Home Automation

Protocols in the Power System: Deployed and Evolving

Media for SCADA and Smart Grid Communication

Guided Media

Twisted Pair

Coaxial (Coax) Metallic Cable

Optical Fiber

Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)

Telephone-Based Systems

Unguided (Wireless) Media

Satellite Communication

Radio (VHF, UHF, Spread Spectrum)

Microwaves

Cell Phone

Paging

Communication Media: Utility Owned versus Leased

Security for SCADA and Smart Grid Communication

Challenges for SCADA and Smart Grid Communication

Summary

Bibliography

Substation Automation (SA)

Substation Automation: Why? Why Now?

Deregulation and Competition

Development of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)

Enterprise-Wide Interest in Information from IEDs

Implementation and Acceptance of Standards

Construction Cost Savings and Reduction in Physical Complexity

Conventional Substations: Islands of Automation

New Smart Devices for Substation Automation

IEDs

New Instrument Transformers with Digital Interface

Intelligent Breaker

Merging Units (MUs)

The New Integrated Digital Substation

Levels of Automation in a Substation

Architecture Functional Data Paths

Data Warehouse

Substation Automation: Technical Issues

System Responsibilities

System Architecture

Substation Host Processor

Substation LAN

User Interface

Communications Interfaces

Protocol Considerations

The New Digital Substation

Process Level

Protection and Control Level

Station Bus and Station Level

Substation Automation Architectures

Legacy Substation Automation System

Digital Substation Automation Design

New versus Existing Substations

Drivers of Transition

Migration Paths and the Steps Involved

Value of Standards in Substation Automation

Substation Automation (SA) Application Functions

Integrated Protection Functions: Traditional Approach and IED-Based Approach

Automation Functions

Enterprise-Level Application Functions

Data Analysis: Benefits of Data Warehousing

Benefits of Data Analysis to Utilities

Problems in Data Analysis

Ways to Handle Data

Knowledge Extraction Techniques

SA Practical Implementation: Substation Automation Laboratory

Hardware Design of the SA Laboratory

Software Components of the SA Laboratory

Mitigation from Old Technology to the New Technology

Case Studies in Substation Automation

Summary

Bibliography

Energy Management Systems (EMS) for Control Centers

Introduction

Operating States of the Power System and Sources of Grid Vulnerability

Energy Control Centers

Energy Management Systems (EMS): Why and What and Challenges

Energy Management Systems Evolution

EMS Framework

EMS Time Frames

EMS Software Applications and Data Flow

Data Acquisition and Communication (SCADA Systems)

Generation Operation and Management

Load Forecasting

Unit Commitment

Hydrothermal Coordination

Real-Time Economic Dispatch and Reserve Monitoring

Real-Time Automatic Generation Control

Transmission Operations and Management: Real Time

Network Configuration and Topology Processors

State Estimation

Contingency Analysis

Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow

Islanding of Power Systems

Study-Mode Simulations

Network Modeling

Power Flow Analysis

Short-Circuit Analysis

Post-Event Analysis and Energy Scheduling and Accounting

Energy Scheduling and Accounting

Event Analysis

Energy Service Providers

Dispatcher Training Simulator

Smart Transmission

Phasor Measurement Unit

Phasor Quantity and Time Synchronization

PMU-PDC System Architecture

Applications of PMU

WAMS (Wide-Area Monitoring System)

EMS with WAMS

Future Trends in EMS and DMS with WAMS

Case Studies in EMS and WAMS

Summary

Bibliography

Distribution Automation and Distribution Management (DA/DMS) Systems

Overview of Distribution Systems

Introduction to Distribution Automation

Customer Automation

Feeder Automation

Substation Automation

Subsystems in a Distribution Control Center

Distribution Management Systems (DMSs)

Outage Management Systems (OMS)

CIS (Customer Information System)

GIS (Geographical Information System)

AMS (Asset Management System)

AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure)

DMS Framework: Integration with Subsystems

Common Information Model (CIM)

DMS Application Functions

Advanced Real-Time DMS Applications

Topology Processing (TP)

Integrated Volt-Var Control (IVVC)

Fault Detection, Isolation, and Service Restoration (FDIR)

Distribution Load Flow

Distribution State Estimation (SE) and Load Estimation

Advanced Analytical DMS Applications

Optimal Feeder Reconfiguration

Optimal Capacitor Placement

Other Applications

DMS Coordination with Other Systems

Integration with Outage Management Systems (OMS)

Integration with AMI

Customer Automation Functions

Social Media Usage for Improved Reliability and Customer Satisfaction

Replacing Truck Rolls

Tying It All Together

Routing Signals

DMS in Outage Management

Future Trends in DA and DMS

Case Studies in DA and DMS

Summary

Bibliography

Smart Grid Concepts

Introduction

Smart Grid Definition and Development

Old Grid versus New Grid

Stakeholders in Smart Grid Development

Smart Grid Solutions

Asset Optimization

Demand Optimization

Distribution Optimization

Smart Meter and Communications

Transmission Optimization

Workforce and Engineering Optimization

Smart Grid Road Map

Smart Distribution

Demand-Side Management and Demand Response

Distributed Energy Resource and Energy Storage

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

Smart Homes with Home Energy Management Systems (HEMs)

Plugged Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Microgrids

Smart Transmission

Lessons Learned in Deployment of Smart Grid Technologies

Lessons on Technology

Lessons on Implementation and Deployment

Lessons on Project Management: Building a Collaborative Management Team

Share Lessons Learned

The Lessons Continue

Case Studies in Smart Grid

PG&E Improves Information Visibility

Present and Future Integration of Diagnostic Equipment Monitoring

Accelerated Deployment of Smart Grid Technologies in India: Present Scenario, Challenges, and Way Forward

Summary

Bibliography

Glossary

Index

Electrical engineering students (senior undergraduate and graduate), researchers, and practitioners.

Date de parution :

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