This book presents a new regulatory methodology of auditing human rights to address the decline in trust of governments, using HIV/AIDS as a case study. It aims to document the extent of compliance with the justiciable rights contained in the INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES ON HIV/AIDS AND HUMAN RIGHTS, with pilots conducted in a developed country, Australia, and a developing country, Cambodia. It monitors progress or deterioration in human rights legal implementation in regard to both vulnerability and impact. The virus thrives in vulnerable communities where human rights are generally violated and, in turn, exacerbates the impact of infection by providing more opportunities for unfair treatement, such as coerced testing and discrimination. The application of the audit is tripartite, involving an expert leading and mediating the process, with NGO and government stakeholders. It identifies human rights weaknesses that are fuelling the epidemic, including the unequal treatment of women and minorities such as gay men. It concludes that, while some specific best practice measures have been introduced to improve human rights protection, for example, privacy laws, many lack regulatory traction in terms of enforceability and it highlights how this situation can be improved. The audit could be used internationally and should provide a valuable tool in sharpening the dialogue in the under-resourced UN monitoring system by focusing on areas of concern and highlighting best practices.