This title was first published in 2000: The development of 'search and surveillance' powers are amongst the most controversial issues to confront modern policing and studies of criminal law and criminal justice. This book is the first to challenge the orthodox concept of 'search' in the context of police investigation. Drawing upon extensive international case studies, it provides a fundamental new 'definition' of the highly charged debate surrounding the powers of law enforcers to gather evidence and information for use in criminal proceedings. The book also evaluates the compatibility of these powers of investigation with constitutional and human rights, set in the context of the changing objectives of investigators. Its balance of practical evaluation and in-depth analysis will make it a key text for academics and practitioners alike.