Introduction. Syllabus for a World Civilization Course 1. JAPANESE PHILOSOPHY GRAHAM PARKES. A Life of Aesthetic Refinement: Sei Shonagon, From the Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon. Impermanence as Buddha-Nature: Dogen Kigen, From Shobogenzo-Zuimonki. The Ubiquitously Mobile Mind: Takuan Soho, From the Unfettered Mind. Seeing into One's True Nature: Hakuin Ekaku, From the Zen Master Hakuin. Cut Flowers Suspended in Emptiness: Nishitani Keiji, From "The Japanese Art Arranged Flowers". 2. CHINESE PHILOSOPHY DAVID L. HALL AND ROGER T. AMES. An Ambiguity of Order: China and the West. Classical Confucianism: excerpts from The Analects of Confucius, The Book of Mencius, The Hsun Tzu. Classical Taoism: excerpts from the Lao-tzu, the Chuang-Tzu, the Huai-nan Tzu. Book of Changes (I Ching): excerpts from the I Ching, Wang Pi, "Commentary on the Book of Changes." Chinese Marxism: excerpt from Mao Tse-tung, On Contradictions. 3. SOUTH ASIAN PHILOSOPHY STEPHEN H. PHILLIPS. Excerpts from the Rg Veda, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Yoga-sutra, Nagarjuna', "Averting the Arguments", Madhava, The Charvaka System, the Nyaya-sutra, Sri Aurobindo, The Human Aspiration. 4. ARABIC PHILOSOPHY ERIC L. ORMSBY. Abu Yusuf Ya-qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, from "On God." Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, from "On Reason." Abu Nasr al-Farabi, from "On Hierarchies of Existence" and "On Aristotle's De Interpretatione." Yahya ibn 'Adi, from "On Cultivation of Character." Abu 'Ali ibn Sina, from his Autobiography and from "The Soul Does Not Die with the Death of the Body, It Is Incorruptible." Maimonides, from The Guide of the Perplexed. Abu al-Walid Ibn Rushd, from "On Creation." 5. PERSIAN PHILOSOPHY JANET McCRACKEN AND HOMAYOON SEPASI-TEHRANI. Pre-Islamic Persian Thought: Zoroastrianism: excerpts from Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians, the Gathas, the Avesta: "The Cow's Lament" and "The Two Spirits", Manichaeism: excerpt from Fihrist of al-Nadim, Mazdakism. Post-Islamic Persian Thought: Early Islam, The Shi'ites: excerpts from Nasir'i Khusraw, "Speech" and "Free Will and Determination, Sufism: excerpt from Jalaluddin Rumi, Discourses, Suhrawardi and Illuminationism: excerpts from Yahya Suhrawardi, "The Sound of Gabriel's Wing" and "A Tale of Occidental Exile", Sufi Poetry: excerpts from Jalaluddin Rumi, Divan a Shamsi-Tabriz, Attar, "The Dullard Sage", Forughi, "Lover's Craft", Savaji, "The Drunken Universe", Hashemi, "The Tale of the Uniquely Beautiful. Mirror Maker", Jalaluddin Rumi, "The Mathnawi", The School of Esphahan and Ulla Sadra: excerpt from Mulla Sadra, The Wisdom of the Throne, Rhazes' Platonism: excerpt from Rhazes, "On the Philosophic Life." 6. AMERICAN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY J. BAIRD CALLICOTT AND THOMAS W. OVERHOLT. The Ojibwa Biotic Community: "The Woman Who Married a Beaver" (Traditional Ojibwa Tale), "The Moose and His Offspring" (Traditional Ojibwa Tale). The Lakota's Relatives: excerpts from John G. Neihardt, Black Elk Speaks, John (Fire) Lame Deer and Richard Erdoes, Lame Deer: Seeker of Visions. From an Indian Land Aesthetic to a Land Ethic: excerpt from N. Scott Momaday, "A First American Views His Land." 7: LATIN AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY JORGE VALADEZ. Integrating Life and Death: excerpt from Octavio Paz, The Labyrinth of Solitude. An Artistic Vision of Metaphysical Truth: excerpt from Miguel Leon-Portilla, Aztec Thought and Culture. Latin American Philosophical Identity: excerpt from Augusto Salazar Bondy, The Meaning and Problem of Hispanic American Thought. Through the Eyes of the Oppressed: excerpt from Gustavo Gutierrez, The Power of the Poor in History. 8. AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY JACQUELINE TRIMIER. Ethnophilosophy: excerpt from Placide Franz Tempels, Bantu Philosophy, Leopold Sedar Senghor, "On Negrohood: Psychology of the African Negro." Professional Philosophy: excerpts from Paulin J. Hountondji, African Philosophy: Myth and Reality, Theophilus Okere, "The Role of Prejudice and the Hermeneutical Circle." Philosophic Sagacity: excerpts from Henry Odera Oruka, "Sagacity in African Philosophy", J. O. Sopido, Knowledge, Belief, and Witchcraft. National-Ideological Philosophy: excerpts from Frantz Fanon, Concerning Violence, Kwame Nkrumah, Consciencism. 9. "WESTERN" PHILOSOPHY ROBERT C. SOLOMON AND KATHLEEN M. HIGGINS. Ancient ("Pagan") Philosophy: The Presocratics, Socrates: excerpt from Plato, Crito, Plato: excerpt from The Republic, Aristotle: excerpts from Metaphysics and Nicomachean Ethics. Medieval (Christian) Philosophy: St. Augustine: excerpt from Confessions, The Great Schism, Scholasticism: excerpt from St. Anselm, Proslogion, St. Thomas Aquinas: excerpt from Summa Theologica, Jewish Philosophy, The Reformation. Modern Philosophy: Descartes: excerpts from Meditations on First Philosophy and Discourse on Method, Empiricism: excerpt from David Hume, Treatise of Human Nature, Rationalism: excerpts from Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science and Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Social Philosophy, Hobbes, and Rousseau: excerpts from Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, On the Social Contract. The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: excerpts from G. W. F. Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit, Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra.