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Tropical pathology (2nd ed ) (2° Éd., 2nd ed. 1995. Softcover reprint of the original 2nd ed. 1995) Coll. Spezielle pathologische Anatomie, Vol. 8

Langue : Français

Coordonnateurs : Doerr W., Seifert G.

Couverture de l’ouvrage Tropical pathology (2nd ed )
Since the first edition more than 10 years ago many new information material about tropical diseases have been collected. New technologies were established (e.g. hybridization techniques, flow cytometry, image analysis, telepathology, serologic analysis etc.). The continuous and rapid improvement of tourism in all countries of the world and the increasing emigration of peoples of the developing countries to the old continents have changed the classical image of tropical diseases which are seen with greater frequency in temporative and highly developed countries. For these reasons new concepts were necessary for the second edition of the pathology of tropical diseases. The 27 chapters are written by well reputed experts in these fields.
General Aspects.- 1 Guidelines for Autopsies in the Tropics.- A. Introduction.- B. The Roles of the Autopsy.- I. General and in AIDS.- II. Cancer Registries.- III. Perinatal Mortality.- IV. Maternal Mortality.- V. Future Clinicopathological Research.- C. The Performance and Product of the Autopsy.- I. Consent for an Autopsy.- II. Performance of Autopsies in the Tropics.- III. Clinicopathological Discordance.- IV. Mortality Statistics.- V. Autopsy Histopathology and the Costs of Autopsy.- D. Medicolegal Autopsies.- E. Safety Issues.- I. Risks of Acquiring Infection from an Autopsy.- 1. Hepatitis Viruses.- 2. Tuberculosis.- 3. HIV.- II. Glove Puncture.- F. Facilities and Practice Within Mortuaries.- G. Conclusions and Suggestions.- References.- 2 Geomedicine.- A. Introduction.- B. Early History of Geomedicine.- C. The Evolution of Geomedical Research.- I. Europe and North America.- 1. Germany.- 2. France.- 3. United Kingdom.- 4. United States.- 5. Canada.- 6. Scandinavia.- 7. Soviet Union.- II. Asia.- III. Africa.- IV. Latin America.- D. Concepts and Definitions.- E. Methods and Examples of Geomedical Research.- I. Methods.- II. Examples of Geomedical Research.- 1. Disease Mapping.- 2. Geocancerology.- 3. Disease Diffusion.- F. Future Prospects of the Geography of Health.- References.- 3 Genetic Diseases in the Tropics.- A. Introduction.- B. Genetic Variation and Disease: Ecogenetics.- I. Physical Agents.- 1. Cold Stress.- 2. Heat Adaptation.- 3. High Altitude Adaptation.- 4. Ultraviolet Light.- II. Chemical Agents.- 1. Pseudocholinesterase Variation.- 2. Acetyltransferase Variation.- 3. Paraoxonase Variation.- 4. Alcoholism and Genetics.- III. Infectious Agents.- 1. Blood Groups and Other “Normal” Traits.- 2. Mannose Binding Protein.- 3. Sixth Component of Complement Deficiency.- 4. Fungal Infections.- IV. Nutritional Factors.- 1. Persistent Hereditary Intestinal Lactase Activity.- 2. Dietary Iron Overload.- 3. Metabolic Diseases Probably Due to Dietary Change.- 4. Coronary Heart Disease and Hypertension.- C. Congenital Malformations.- I. Introduction and Definitions.- II. Incidence in the Tropics.- III. Down Syndrome in the Tropics.- D. Consanguinity and Genetic Disease.- E. The Burden of Genetic Disease in the Tropics.- I. Genetic Diseases and Public Health in the Tropics.- II. Genetic Services and Primary Health Care.- F Conclusion.- References.- Infectious Diseases.- 4 New Technology for the Diagnosis of Infectious Disease.- A. Introduction.- B. Nucleic Acid Hybridization.- I. Principles.- II. Nucleic Acid Probes.- III. Labeling and Detection of Nucleic Acid Probes.- IV. Hybridization Formats.- 1. Solid Support Hybridization.- 2. In Solution Hybridization.- 3. In Situ Hybridization.- V. Nucleic Acid Amplification.- VI. Analysis of Nucleic Acids in Archival Tissues.- VII. Applications in Infectious Disease Diagnosis and Research.- C. Immunoassays.- D. New Laboratory Instrumentation.- I. Recombinant Gene Products and Synthetic Peptides.- II. Flow Cytometry.- E. Summary.- References.- Bacterial Diseases.- 5 Intestinal Bacterial Infections.- A. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- IV. Laboratory Confirmation.- B. Cholera.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- C. Shigellosis.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- D. Typhoid Fever.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- References.- 6 Non-Intestinal Bacterial Infections.- A. Plague.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- B. Brucellosis.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- IV. Laboratory Confirmation.- C. Melioidosis (Whitmore’s Disease).- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- D. Anthrax.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- E. Scleroma (Rhinoscleroma).- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- F. Tropical Pyomyositis.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- G. Cutaneous Diphtheria.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- H. Tropical Ulcer.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- J. Buruli Ulcer (Searle’s Ulcer, Bairnsdale Ulcer, Kakerifu Ulcer, Toro Ulcer).- K. Actinomycotic Mycetoma and Botryomycosis.- References.- 7 Spirochaetal and Leptospiral Diseases.- A. Introduction.- B. Spirochaetal Diseases.- I. Syphilis.- 1. Serological Tests for Syphilis.- 2. Acquired Syphilis.- 3. Congenital Syphilis.- II. Endemic Treponematoses (Non-Venereal).- 1. Yaws.- 2. Non-Venereal Endemic Syphilis.- C. Leptospiral Diseases.- I. Leptospirosis (Weil’s Disease).- II. Borrelia Infections.- 1. Relapsing Fever.- 2. Lyme Disease.- D. Tropical Phagedenic Ulcer.- References.- 8 Infections Caused by Rickettsiae and Rickettsia-Like Organisms and Bartonellosis.- A. Rickettsial Infections.- I. The Typhus Group of Infections.- 1. Epidemic Typhus Fever.- 2. Endemic (Murine) Typhus Fever.- II. The Spotted Fever Group of Infections.- 1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.- 2. Other Spotted Fevers.- 3. Rickettsial Pox.- III. Miscellaneous Rickettsial Infections.- 1. Scrub Typhus.- IV. Laboratory Confirmation of Rickettsial Infections.- B. Infections Caused by Rickettsia-Like Organisms.- I. Q Fever.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathogenesis.- 4. Pathology.- 5. Laboratory Confirmation.- II. Trench Fever.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathology.- 4. Laboratory Confirmation.- III. Other Rochalimaea-Associated Infections.- IV. Ehrlichial Infections.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathology.- 4. Laboratory Confirmation.- C. Bartonellosis.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- 1. Oroya Fever.- 2. Transition Phase.- 3. Verruca Peruviana.- III. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- IV. Laboratory Confirmation.- References.- 9 Mycobacterial Infections of the Skin.- A. Introduction.- B. Leprosy.- I. Introduction and Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- 1. Indeterminate Leprosy.- 2. Polar Tuberculoid Leprosy.- 3. Borderline Leprosy.- 4. Polar Lepromatous Leprosy.- 5. Neuritic Leprosy.- III. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- 1. Immunology.- 2. Pathology.- IV. Reactions.- 1. Reversal Reactions.- 2. Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.- 3. Therapy of Reactions.- V. Treatment of Leprosy.- 1. Chemotherapeutic Agents.- 2. WHO’s Multidrug Therapy.- 3. Determination of Efficacy of Chemotherapy.- 4. Immunotherapy and Vaccination.- VI. Leprosy and HIV Infection.- VII. Experimental and Naturally Acquired Leprosy in Animals.- VIII. Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis.- C. Tuberculosis of the Skin.- I. Primary Tuberculosis.- 1. Primary Inoculation Tuberculosis.- 2. Generalized Miliary Tuberculosis (Tuberculosis Cutis Miliaris Disseminata).- II. Reinfection Tuberculosis.- 1. Lupus Vulgaris.- 2. Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis.- 3. Scrofuloderma.- 4. Tuberculosis Cutis Orificialis.- III. Tuberculids.- 1. Papulonecrotic Tuberculid.- 2. Lichen Scrofulosorum.- 3. Erythema Induratum of Bazin.- D. Mycobacterium ulcerons Infection (Buruli Ulcer).- I. Introduction and Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- IV. Treatment.- V. Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis.- E. Less Common Mycobacterial Infections.- I. Rapid-Growing Mycobacteria (M. fortuitum and M. chelonei).- II. Swimming Pool Granuloma (M. marinum Infection).- III. M: avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) and M. scrofulaceum.- IV. M. kansasii Infection.- V. M. haemophilum Infection.- VI. M. szulgai Infection.- VII. Other Mycobacteria Causing Cutaneous Lesions.- References.- 10 Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Tropics.- A. Introduction.- B. Gonorrhoea.- C. Non-Gonococcal Urethritis.- D. Acute Epididymo-Orchitis.- E. Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.- F. Trichomoniasis.- G. Genital Candidiasis.- H. Bacterial Vaginosis.- J. Syphilis.- I. Early Syphilis.- 1. Primary Syphilis.- 2. Secondary Syphilis.- 3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary and Secondary Syphilis.- 4. Pathology of Early Syphilis.- 5. Latent Syphilis.- II. Tertiary Syphilis.- 1. Cutaneous, Mucosal and Bony Gummas.- 2. Cardiovascular Syphilis.- 3. Neurosyphilis.- 4. Diagnosis of Tertiary Syphilis.- 5. Pathology of Late Syphilis.- III. Syphilis in Pregnancy.- IV. Congenital Syphilis.- 1. Early Congenital Syphilis.- 2. Late Congenital Syphilis.- 3. Laboratory Diagnosis of Congenital Syphilis.- K. Genital Herpes.- L. Chancroid.- M. Lymphogranuloma Venerum.- N. Granuloma Inguinale.- O. Genital Warts.- P. Molluscum Contagiosum.- Q. Scabies.- R. Pubic Lice (Pediculosis Pubis).- References.- Viral Diseases.- 11 The Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers.- A. Mosquito Borne Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers.- I. Yellow Fever.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathogenesis.- 4. Pathology.- 5. Laboratory Confirmation.- II. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathology.- 4. Laboratory Confirmation.- III. Rift Valley Fever.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathology.- 4. Laboratory Confirmation.- IV. Chikungunya Haemorrhagic Fever.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathology.- 4. Laboratory Confirmation.- B. Tick Borne Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers.- I. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- 4. Laboratory Confirmation.- II. Omsk Haemorrhagic Fever and Kyasanur Forest Disease.- 1. Epidemiology.- 2. Clinical Features.- 3. Pathology.- 4. Laboratory Confirmation.- C. The Arenaviral Haemorrhagic Fevers.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- 1. Argentinian and Bolivian Haemorrhagic Fevers.- 2. Venezuelan Haemorrhagic Fever.- 3. Lassa Fever.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- 1. Argentinian and Bolivian Haemorrhagic Fevers.- 2. Venezuelan Haemorrhagic Fever.- 3. Lassa Fever.- V. Laboratory Confirmation.- D. Filoviral Haemorrhagic Fevers.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathology.- 1. Marburg Virus Disease.- 2. Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever.- IV. Laboratory Confirmation.- E. Hantavirus Infections.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathology.- IV. Laboratory Confirmation.- F. Haemorrhagic Smallpox.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Features.- III. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- IV. Laboratory Confirmation.- References.- Protozoal Diseases.- 12 Intestinal Protozoa.- A. Giardia duodenalis.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Giardiasis.- VI. Diagnosis.- B. Dientamoeba fragilis.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Diagnosis.- C. Entamoeba histolytica.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis, Symptomatology and Pathology.- 1. Luminal Amoebiasis.- 2. Invasive Amoebiasis.- V. Diagnosis.- 1. Luminal Amoebiasis.- 2. Intestinal Invasive Amoebiasis.- 3. Extra-Intestinal Invasive Amoebiasis.- D. Limax and Leptomyxid Amoebae.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Limax and Leptomyxid Amoebiasis.- VI. Diagnosis.- E. Blastocystis hominis.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Blastocystosis.- VI. Diagnosis.- F. Balantidium coli.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Balantidiasis.- VI. Diagnosis.- G. Isospora belli.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Isosporiasis.- VI. Diagnosis.- 1. Stool Examination.- 2. Biopsy.- H. Sarcocystis Species.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Sarcosporidiosis.- 1. Intestinal Sarcosporidiosis.- 2. Extra-Intestinal Sarcosporidiosis.- VI. Diagnosis.- J. Cryptosporidium Species.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Cryptosporidiosis.- VI. Diagnosis.- K. Microsporidiosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Life Cycle and Transmission.- III. Distribution and Epidemiology.- IV. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- V. Pathology of Microsporidiosis.- 1. Intestinal Microsporidiosis.- 2. Extra-Intestinal Microsporidiosis.- VI. Diagnosis of Microsporidiosis.- 1. Intestinal Microsporidiosis.- 2. Extra-Intestinal Microsporidiosis.- L Toxoplasma gondii.- I. Introduction.- II. Distribution and Epidemiology.- III. Pathogenesis and Symptomatology.- IV. Pathology of Toxoplasmosis.- V. Diagnosis.- References.- 13 Malaria.- A. Epidemiology.- B. The Parasites.- C. Life Cycle.- D. Transmission.- E. Susceptibility and Manifestation of Disease.- F. Pathogenesis and Clinicopathologic Features.- I. Fever.- II. Anemia.- III. Liver Damage.- IV. Alterations to the Spleen.- V. Gastrointestinal Damage.- VI. Renal Damage.- VII. Thrombocytopenia and Clotting Defects.- VIII. Pulmonary Damage.- IX. Cerebral Injury.- G. Gross and Microscopic Pathology of Fatal Falciparum Malaria.- I. Brain.- II. Kidney.- III. Liver.- IV. Spleen.- V. Bone Marrow.- VI. Lymph Nodes.- VII. Heart.- VIII. Lungs.- IX. Gastrointestinal Tract.- X. Placenta.- H. Diagnosis.- J. Prophylaxis and Treatment.- I. Introduction.- II. Individual Medications.- 1. The 4-Aminoquinoline Drugs.- 2. The 8-Aminoquinoline Drugs.- 3. Cinchona Alkaloids.- 4. Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors.- 5. Sulfonamides.- 6. Tetracyclines.- 7. 4-Quinolinemethanols and Other New Drugs.- III. Additional Drugs Used in the Treatment of Malaria.- IV. Other Forms of Therapy.- K. Pathologic Complications of Malarial Therapy.- L. Vaccine Development.- References.- 14 Leishmaniasis.- A. Introduction.- B. Parasite Morphology and Life Cycle.- C. Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Manifestations.- 1. New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.- III. Pathogenesis.- IV. Pathology.- V. Immunology.- VI. Laboratory Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- D. Visceral Leishmaniasis.- I. Epidemiology.- II. Clinical Manifestations.- III. Pathogenesis and Pathology.- IV. Immunology.- V. Diagnosis.- VI. Differential Diagnosis.- References.- 15 Trypanosomiasis.- A. Introduction.- B. American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ Disease) (A. L. BITTENCOURT).- I. Introduction.- II. Parasite Morphology and Life Cycle.- III. Epidemiology.- IV. Clinical Features.- 1. Acute Disease.- 2. Chronic Interdeterminate Disease.- 3. Chronic Cardiac Disease.- 4. Chronic Digestive Disease.- 5. Chronic Nervous Disease.- 6. Congenital Disease.- V. Immunology.- VI. Pathogenesis.- 1. Acute Disease.- 2. Chronic Disease.- VII. Pathology.- 1. Acute Disease.- 2. Chronic Interdeterminate Disease.- 3. Chronic Cardiac Disease.- 4. Chronic Digestive Disease.- 5. Chronic Nervous Disease.- 6. Reactivation of Chagasic Infection.- 7. Congenital Disease.- VIII. Diagnosis.- C. African Trypanosomiasis (T. G. ASHWORTH).- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- 1. Parasite Morphology and Life Cycle.- 2. Distribution and Frequency.- 3. Vector.- 4. Host-Parasite Relationship.- III. Clinical Features.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Stage I Disease.- 3. Stage II Disease.- 4. Congenital Transmission.- 5. Coexistent Disease and Complications of Treatment.- IV. Pathology and Pathogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pathology and Pathogenesis of Stage I Disease.- 3. Pathology of Stage II Disease.- 4. Pathogenesis of Stage II Disease.- V. Laboratory Diagnosis.- References.- Mycotic Diseases.- 16 Tropical Mycotic Diseases.- A. Introduction.- B. Mycetomas.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology and Aetiological Agents.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- 1. Black Grains of Eumycotic Mycetomas.- 2. Pale Grains of Eumycotic Mycetomas.- 3. Grains of Actinomycotic Mycetomas.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- C. Sporotrichosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- B. Chromoblastomycosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- E. Rhinosporidiosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- F. Lobomycosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- G. Entomophthoromycosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- 1. Subcutaneous Form.- 2. Mucocutaneous Form.- 3. Primary Visceral Form.- IV. Pathology.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- H. Paracoccidioidomycosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- 1. Gross Aspects.- 2. Microscopic Aspects.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- J. African Histoplasmosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- K. Cryptococcosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Epidemiology.- III. Clinical Aspects.- IV. Pathology.- 1. Gross Aspects.- 2. Microscopic Aspects.- V. Immunology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Differential Diagnosis.- References.- Metazoal Diseases.- 17 Helminthology.- A. Introduction to Helminths.- I. Acoelemate.- II. Pseudocoelemate.- III. Coelemate.- IV. Classifying the Worm.- B. Helminths Pathogenic to Humans.- I. Phylum: Platyhelminthes.- Class: Trematoda.- 1. Schistosomiasis.- 2. Troglotrematidae.- 3. Opisthorchiidae.- 4. Dicrocoeliidae.- 5. Fasciolidae.- 6. Echinostomatidae.- 7. Heterophyidae.- 8. Paramphistomatidae.- 9. Rare Trematode Infections of Humans.- 10. General Comments on Therapy for Trematodes.- Class: Cestoidea.- 1. Pseudophyllidea.- 2. Cyclophyllidea; Family: Taeniidae.- 3. Cyclophyllidea; Family: Hymenolepididae.- 4. Cyclophyllidea; Family: Dipylidiidae.- 5. Cyclophyllidea; Family: Davaineidae.- 6. Other Cyclophyllidean Infections of Humans.- II. Pseudocoelomates: The Nematodes.- Subclass: Adenophorea.- 1. Trichuris.- 2. Capillaria.- 3. Trichinella.- 4. Dioctophyma and Eustrongylides.- Subclass: Secernentea.- 1. Halicephalobus (syn. Micronema).- 2. Stronggyloides.- 3. Ancylostoma and Necator Species.- 4. Mammomonogamus.- 5. Trichostrongylus.- 6. Angiostrongylus and Metastrongylus.- 7. Ascaris.- 8. Visceral Larva Migrans.- 9. Anisakis, Contracaecum, Phocanema (Pseudoterranova), Terranova, Porrocaecum, and Hysterothylacium.- 10. Enterobius.- 11. Cutaneous Larva Migrans.- 12. Spirocerca, Thelazia.- 13. Filarial Nematodes.- 14. Dracunculus.- III. Pseudocoelomates: Acanthocephala.- 1. Macracanthorhynchus.- 2. Moniliformis.- 3. Acanthocephalus, Corynosoma, and Bolbosoma.- IV. Phylum: Annelida.- V. Phylum: Arthropoda.- C. Helminths Categorized by Organ System Involvement.- D. Artifacts, Arthropods and Nonpathogenic Worms Commonly Mistaken for Parasites.- E. Polyparasitism and Final Comments.- References.- Non-Infectious Diseases.- 18 Malnutrition and Intestinal Malabsorption.- A. Protein Energy Malnutrition.- I. General Aspects.- II. Overnutrition in the Tropics.- III. Undernutrition (Nutritional Growth Retardation).- IV. Marasmus.- V. Kwashiorkor.- 1. Oedema.- 2. Skin Changes.- 3. Mucous Membranes.- 4. Hair Changes.- 5. Muscle Wasting.- 6. Mental and Neurological Changes.- 7. Renal Function.- VI. Marasmic Kwashiorkor.- VII. Pathology of Protein Energy Malnutrition.- 1. Water and Electrolyte Balance.- 2. Skeletal Muscle Atrophy.- 3. Heart.- 4. Liver.- 5. Pancreas.- 6. Endocrine System.- 7. Gastrointestinal Tract.- 8. Haemopoietic System.- 9. Lymphoreticular System.- VIII. Interaction of Protein Energy Malnutrition with Infection.- IX. Long-Term Sequelae of Protein Energy Malnutrition.- B. Vitamin and Mineral Malnutrition.- I. Vitamins.- 1. Vitamin A.- 2. Vitamin E.- 3. Vitamin K.- 4. Thiamine (Vitamin B1.- 5. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2).- 6. Niacin (Nicotinic Acid Vitamin B5).- 7. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6).- 8. Pantothenic Acid.- 9. Cobalamin Compounds (Vitamin B12).- 10. Folic Acid.- 11. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C).- 12. Vitamin D, Calcium and Phosphorus.- II. Minerals and Trace Elements.- 1. Iron Deficiency Anaemia.- 2. Zinc Deficiency.- 3. Selenium, Copper and Manganese.- C. Nutritional Siderosis.- D. Tropical Sprue.- E. Chronic Pancreatic Disease in the Tropics.- References.- Special Pathology of Organ Systems.- 19 Cardiovascular Diseases in the Tropics.- A. Introduction.- B. Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy.- I. Dilated Cardiomyopathy.- 1. Aetiology.- 2. Macroscopic Pathology.- 3. Microscopic Pathology.- 4. Ultrastructure.- II. Variants of Dilated Cardiomyopathy.- 1. Keshan Disease.- 2. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.- 3. Becker Muscular Dystrophy.- 4. Familial Cardiomyopathy.- 5. Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.- 6. Non-Compaction of Ventricular Myocardium.- III. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.- 1. Macroscopic Pathology.- 2. Microscopic Pathology.- IV. Restrictive/Obliterative Cardiomyopathy.- 1. Aetiology.- 2. Primary Endocardial Fibroelastosis.- 3. Amyloidosis.- 4. Cardiac Siderosis.- 5. Sarcoidosis.- 6. Endomyocardial Fibrosis: Obliterative Cardiomyopathy.- V. Löffler’s Endocarditis.- B. Inflammatory Diseases of Myocardium.- I. Myocarditis.- 1. Non-Specific Myocarditis.- 2. Granulomatous Myocarditis.- 3. Tuberculosis.- 4. Typhoid Fever.- II. Protozoal and Parasitic Diseases.- 1. Toxoplasmosis.- 2. Sarcocystis.- 3. Amoebiasis.- 4. Trypanosomiasis.- III. Helminthic Parasites.- 1. Tapeworms (Cestodes).- C. Systemic Hypertension.- D. Rheumatic Heart Disease.- E. Idiopathic Cardiac Aneurysms.- F. Coronary Atherosclerosis.- G. Epidemic Dropsy.- H. Congenital Heart Disease.- J. Kaposi’s Sarcoma.- K. Heat Injury and Role of Heat Shock Proteins.- I. Heat Injury.- II. Heat Shock Proteins.- L. Pericardial Diseases.- I. Purulent (Suppurative) Pericarditis.- II. Tuberculous Pericarditis.- M. Vascular Diseases.- I. Idiopathic (Takayasu’s) Aortitis.- II. Tuberculous Arteritis and Aneurysms.- III. Peripheral Mucoid Arteriopathy.- IV. Ainhum.- V. Cerebrovascular Disease.- VI. Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Syndrome).- References.- 20 Blood Diseases in the Tropics.- A. Introduction.- B. Normal Values and References Ranges.- I. Haemoglobin (Hb).- II. White Blood Cell Count (WBC).- III. Platelet Counts.- C. Anaemia — General Features.- I. Introduction.- II. Basic Mechanisms.- III. Clinical Features.- D. The Nutritional Anaemias.- I. Introduction.- 1. Iron Metabolism.- 2. Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anaemia.- 3. Iron Overload.- 4. Iron and Infection.- II. Megaloblastic Anaemia.- 1. Folate Metabolism.- 2. Folate Deficiency.- 3. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Deficiency.- III. Anaemia of Protein Deficiency.- E. Anaemia of Chronic Disease.- F. Haemolytic Anaemias.- I. Hereditary Abnormalities of the Red Cell Membrane.- 1. Hereditary Elliptocytosis.- 2. Hereditary Spherocytosis.- II. Hereditary Abnormalities of Hb Synthesis.- 1. The Haemoglobinopathies.- III. The Enzymopathies.- 1. G6PD Deficiency.- 2. Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency.- IV. Acquired Haemolytic Anaemia.- G. Haematological Manifestations of Malaria and Other Parasitic Infections.- I. Malaria.- 1. Anaemia.- 2. White Cell Changes.- 3. Changes in Platelets and Other Haemostatic Parameters.- 4. Interaction of Malaria with the Hereditary Erythrocytopathies.- II. Other Parasites.- H. Hypersplenism and Pancytopenia.- J. Bleeding Disorders.- K. Blood Transfusion in the Tropics.- References.- 21 Cirrhosis and Other Liver Diseases.- A. Viral Hepatitis and Hepatic Cirrhosis.- I. Viral Hepatitis.- II. Hepatic Cirrhosis.- 1. Post-Viral Cirrhosis.- 2. Indian Childhood Cirrhosis.- B. Idiopathic Portal Hypertension.- C. Hepatic Venous Outflow Obstruction.- I. Chronic Hepatic Venous Outflow Obstruction.- II. Veno-Occlusive Disease.- D. Primary Liver Carcinoma.- I. Hepatocellular Carcinoma.- II. Cholangiocarcinoma.- E Primary Recurrent Pyogenic (Oriental) Cholangitis.- References.- 22 Renal Diseases in the Tropics.- A. Introduction.- B. Protozoal Infections.- I. Malarial Nephropathy.- 1. Clinical Symptoms.- 2. Pathology in Transient Glomerulonephritis.- 3. Pathology in Acute Renal Failure.- 4. Quartan Malaria (P. malariae) Infection.- II. Visceral Leishmaniasis.- III. American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ Disease).- IV. Amoebiasis.- C. Helminthic Diseases.- I. Filarial Nematode Infections — Bancroftian and Brugian Filariasis, Loiasis, Onchocerciasis.- II. Nematode Infection — Dioctophymiasis.- 1. Trichinosis.- 2. Dioctophymiasis.- 3. Strongyloidiasis.- 4. Opisthorchiasis.- III. Trematode Infections — Schistosomiasis.- IV. Cestode Infections.- D. Viral Infections.- I. Hantavirus — Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome.- II. Arenaviridae Virus.- III. Togaviridae Viruses.- 1. Chikungunya Fever.- 2. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.- IV. Viral Hepatitis.- V. AIDS Virus (HIV).- E. Spirochaetal Infections.- I. Leptospirosis.- II. Borrelia Recurrentis — Relapsing Fever.- F. Bacterial Infections: Enteric.- I. Salmonellosis.- II. Typhoid Fever.- III. Shigellosis.- IV. Cholera.- G. Mycobacterial Infections: Leprosy.- H. Venomous Snake Bites.- J. Metabolic Derangements in the Tropics.- I. Acute Rhabdomyolysis and Myoglobinuria.- II. Heat Stroke.- III. Fluid and Electrolyte Depletion.- K. Blood Dyscrasias.- I. Sickle Cell Disease.- II. Thalassaemias.- III. G6PD Deficiency and Haemolysis.- L. Renal Diseases of Epidemiological Importance.- I. Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis.- II. IgA Nephropathy.- III. IgM Nephropathy.- IV. Tropical Nephropathy.- V. Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome in Infections.- References.- Neoplasias.- 23 Cancer in the Tropics.- A. Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Prevention (A. R. P. WALKER).- I. Introduction.- II. Description of Populations.- 1. Comments on Rates.- 2. Time Trends of Cancers.- 3. Comment.- III. Cancer Prevention and Avoidance.- 1. Risk Factor Control.- 2. Other Avoidance Measures: Screening.- 3. Survival from Cancer.- IV. Epidemiological Outlook.- V. Summary and Conclusions.- B. Pathology (C. ISAACSON).- I. Carcinoma of the Breast.- II. Carcinoma of the Digestive System.- 1. Tongue.- 2. Salivary Gland.- 3. Oesophagus.- 4. Stomach.- 5. Pancreas.- 6. Large Bowel.- III. Malignant Disease in Childhood in the Tropics.- IV. Malignant Lymphomas.- V. Neoplasias of the Skin.- VI. Carcinoma of the Female Genital Tract.- 1. Corpus Uteri.- 2. Chorionepithelioma.- 3. Ovary.- VII. Carcinoma of the Respiratory System.- 1. Nasal Sinuses.- 2. Larynx.- 3. Bronchus.- VIII. Carcinoma of the Urinary System.- 1. Kidney.- 2. Bladder.- 3. Prostate.- 4. Testis.- 5. Penis.- IX. Tumours of the Central Nervous System.- X. Tumours of the Endocrine System.- XI. Tumours of the Jaw.- C. Molecular Biology of Particular Cancers (A.C. PATERSON).- I. Breast.- II. Oral Cavity.- III. Nasopharynx.- IV. Oesophagus.- V. Stomach.- VI. Exocrine Pancreas.- VII. Colorectum.- VIII. Uterine Cervix.- IX. Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- X. Conclusion.- References.- 24 Kaposi’s Sarcoma.- A. Introduction.- B. Classification, Epidemiology and Geographical Pathology.- C. Clinical Course and Disease Manifestations.- D. Fundamental Histopathology and Histological Process.- E. Additional Histological Findings.- F. Immunohistochemistry.- G. Ultrastructural Findings.- H. Flow Cytometry and Cell Ploidy.- J. Histogenesis.- K. Diagnostic Pathology.- L. Aetiology, Pathogenesis and Disease Entity.- References.- Environmental Diseases.- 25 Environmental Diseases in the Tropics.- A. Pathologic Conditions Caused by Arthropods.- I. Porocephalosis.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Introduction and Definition.- 3. Clinical Characteristics.- 4. Pathology.- 5. Distribution.- II. Tungiasis.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Definition, Aetiology and Clinical Characteristics.- 3. Pathology.- 4. Distribution.- III. Myiasis.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Aetioplogy and General Description.- IV. Scabies.- B. Tropical Splenomegaly Syndrome.- I. Definition.- II. Clinical Characteristics.- III. Pathology and Pathogenesis.- IV. Aetiology.- V. Epidemiology.- VI. Additional Comments.- C. Myospherulosis.- I. Synonyms.- II. Definition, Clinical Characteristics and Pathology.- III. Distribution and Aetiology.- D. Mycotoxicosis.- I. Definition.- II. History, Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics.- III. Pathology and Carcinogenicity.- IV. Role of Mycotoxin in Tropical Medicine.- E. Heat Disorders.- I. Heat Stroke.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Definition and Aetiology.- 3. Clinical Characteristics and Epidemiology.- 4. Pathology.- 5. Diagnosis.- II. Heat Exhaustion.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Definition and Aetiology.- 3. Clinical Characteristics.- 4. Differential Diagnosis.- III. Heat Cramps.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Definition and Aetiology.- 3. Clinical Characteristics and Pathogenesis.- IV. Sunburn.- V. Miliaria Rubra.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Definition and Aetiology.- 3. Clinical Characteristics and Pathology.- VI. Anhydrotic Asthenia.- 1. Synonyms.- 2. Definition and Aetiology.- 3. Clinical Characteristics.- F. Human Ecology and Disease Manifestations.- References.- Addendum.- 26 Diseases of Uncertain Aetiology.- A. Familial Mediterranean Fever and Related Conditions.- I. Synonyms.- II. Introduction and Definition.- III. Clinical Characteristics.- IV. Pathology.- V. Aetiology.- VI. Distribution.- VIL Additional Comments.- B. Tumoural Calcinosis.- I. Synonyms.- II. Definition.- III. Clinical Characteristics.- IV. Pathology.- V. Aetiology and Pathogenesis.- VI. Distribution.- VII. Additional Comments.- C. Idiopathic Elephantiasis.- I. Synonyms.- II. Definition.- III. Clinical Characteristics.- IV. Pathology.- V. Aetiology.- VI. Distribution.- D. Ainhum.- I. Synonyms.- II. Definition and Clinical Characteristics.- III. Pathology.- IV. Aetiology.- V. Distribution.- VI. Additional Comments.- E. Tropical Ulcer.- I. Synonyms.- II. Definition.- III. Clinical Characteristics.- IV. Pathology.- V. Aetiology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Distribution.- VIII. Additional Comments.- F. Tropical Eosinophilia.- I. Synonyms.- II. Definition.- III. Clinical Characteristics.- IV. Pathology.- V. Aetiology.- VI. Diagnosis.- VII. Distribution.- G. Desert Sore.- I. Synonyms.- II. Definition and Clinical Characteristics.- III. Aetiology.- IV. Diagnosis.- V. Distribution.- H. Toxaemia of Pregnancy.- I. Synonyms, Definition and Clinical Characteristics.- II. Pathology.- III. Aetiology and Distribution.- References.

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