Over 200 discrete topics, covering the full spectrum of general surgery and the surgical sub-specialties. Each topic will be presented in a bulleted, outline-oriented format. Extensive coverage of pathophysiology, especially the molecular and genetic underpinnings of disease states and their progression, will be included. Examples of new laparoscopic and other minimally invasive surgical techniques will also be illustrated and described throughout(see GI, GYN, and vascular chapters.) The General Surgery Residency is considered one of the most rigorous in all of medicine, demanding long hours in the wards. Strategies for determining a diagnosis and differential diagnosis are included throughout. Separate chapters on the full spectrum of surgically treated diseases with emphasis on cardiac and thoracic surgery. Staging tables included in all cancer chapters. Covers the avoidance of surgical complications and post-operative follow-up. Special emphasis on pain management.