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Solid state proton conductors properties and applications in fuel cells (hardback) Properties and Applications in Fuel Cells

Langue : Anglais

Auteurs :

Couverture de l’ouvrage Solid state proton conductors properties and applications in fuel cells (hardback)
Proton conduction can be found in many different solid materials, from organic polymers at room temperature to inorganic oxides at high temperature. Solid state proton conductors are of central interest for many technological innovations, including hydrogen and humidity sensors, membranes for water electrolyzers and, most importantly, for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion in fuel cells.

Focusing on fundamentals and physico-chemical properties of solid state proton conductors, topics covered include:

  • Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids
  • Diffusion in Solid Proton Conductors by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Structure and Diffusivity by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering
  • Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy
  • Mechanical and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Proton-Conducting Polymers
  • Ab initio Modeling of Transport and Structure
  • Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acids
  • Proton-Conducting Aromatic Polymers
  • Inorganic Solid Proton Conductors

Uniquely combining both organic (polymeric) and inorganic proton conductors, Solid State Proton Conductors: Properties and Applications in Fuel Cells provides a complete treatment of research on proton-conducting materials.

Preface xi

About the Editors xiii

Contributing Authors xv

1 Introduction and Overview: Protons, the Nonconformist Ions 1

Maria Luisa Di Vona and Philippe Knauth

1.1 Brief History of the Field 2

1.2 Structure of This Book 2

References 4

2 Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids 5

Habib Ghobarkar, Philippe Knauth and Oliver Sch€,af

2.1 Introduction 5

2.1.1 Preparation Technique of Solid Acids 5

2.1.2 Imaging Technique with the Scanning Electron Microscope 6

2.2 Crystal Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids 8

2.2.1 Hydrohalic Acids 8

2.2.2 Main Group Element Oxoacids 10

2.2.3 Transition Metal Oxoacids 20

2.2.4 Carboxylic Acids 23

References 24

3 Diffusion in Solid Proton Conductors: Theoretical Aspects and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis 25

Maria Luisa Di Vona, Emanuela Sgreccia, and Sebastiano Tosto

3.1 Fundamentals of Diffusion 25

3.1.1 Phenomenology of Diffusion 26

3.1.2 Solutions of the Diffusion Equation 35

3.1.3 Diffusion Coefficients and Proton Conduction 37

3.1.4 Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient 38

3.2 Basic Principles of NMR 40

3.2.1 Description of the Main NMR Techniques Used in Measuring

Diffusion Coefficients 42

3.3 Application of NMR Techniques 47

3.3.1 Polymeric Proton Conductors 47

3.3.2 Inorganic Proton Conductors 57

3.4 Liquid Water Visualization in Proton-Conducting Membranes by Nuclear

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 62

3.5 Conclusions 65

References 65

4 Structure and Diffusivity in Proton-Conducting Membranes Studied by Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering 69

Rolf Hempelmann

4.1 Survey 69

4.2 Diffusion in Solids and Liquids 71

4.3 Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering: A Brief Introduction 74

4.4 Proton Diffusion in Membranes 80

4.4.1 Microstructure by Means of SAXS and SANS 80

4.4.2 Proton Conductivity and Water Diffusion 87

4.4.3 QENS Studies 88

4.5 Solid State Proton Conductors 93

4.5.1 Aliovalently Doped Perovskites 94

4.5.2 Hydrogen-Bonded Systems 99

4.6 Concluding Remarks 102

References 102

5 Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy: A Powerful Tool for the Determination of Charge Transfer Mechanisms in Ion Conductors 107

Vito Di Noto, Guinevere Giffin, Keti Vezzu`, Matteo Piga, and Sandra Lavina

5.1 Basic Principles 108

5.1.1 The Interaction of Matter with Electromagnetic Fields: The

Maxwell Equations 108

5.1.2 Electric Response in Terms of?109

5.2 Phenomenological Background of Electric Properties in a Time-Dependent Field 112

5.2.1 Polarization Events 112

5.3 Theory of Dielectric Relaxation 125

5.3.1 Dielectric Relaxation Modes of Macromolecular Systems 126

5.3.2 A General Equation for the Analysis in the Frequency Domain ofs(o) and e(o) 130

5.4 Analysis of Electric Spectra 130

5.5 Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurement Techniques 139

5.5.1 Measurement Systems 142

5.5.2 Contacts 156

5.5.3 Calibration 163

5.5.4 Calibration in Parallel Plate Methods 164

5.5.5 Measurement Accuracy 170

5.6 Concluding Remarks 177

5.7 Acknowledgements 178

References 178

6 Mechanical and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Proton-Conducting Polymers 181

Jean-Fran¸,cois Chailan, Mustapha Khadhraoui, and Philippe Knauth

6.1 Introduction 181

6.1.1 Molecular Configurations: The Morphology and Microstructure of Polymers 181

6.1.2 Molecular Motions 182

6.1.3 Glass Transition and Other Molecular Relaxations...

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