The branch of clinical psychology known as behavior modification or, synonymously, applied behavior analysis, has grown substantially from humble beginnings in the 1960s. Many colleges and universities now offer courses in applied behavior analysis, and more than a few grant degrees in the area. Although they remain controversial, behavior mod ification procedures have been used to good advantage in dealing with a range of problem behaviors and are now rather widely employed in schools, residential institutions, and other therapeutic facilities. The two hallmarks of applied behavior analysis are utilization of the principles of operant conditioning to improve human behavior and utilization of scientific research methodology to assess the effectiveness of treatments. The present text provides an overview of several issues peculiar to applied behavior analysis research methodology. Six general areas of concern are (a) trends in applied behavior analysis research, (b) assessment and measurement issues, (c) experimental designs and strategies, (d) interpretation of findings, (e) ethical issues in applied behavior analysis, and (f) the societal impact of studies in the area. As evidenced by a sizable number of recently published articles, these topics are of considerable interest to behavior analysts. They also are relevant for students of scientific epistemology and general psychological research methods.