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Morphology and function in MRI : cardiovascular and renal systems, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989 Cardiovascular and Renal Systems

Langue : Anglais

Auteur :

Préfaciers : Fuchs W.A., Margulis A.

Couverture de l’ouvrage Morphology and function in MRI : cardiovascular and renal systems
MRI has opened up new possibilities in combined morphological and functional imaging, and now there is a book which discusses both aspects together. Two systems which already demonstrate the advantages of MRI are presented. In the cardiovascular system, motion and flow can be imaged so that even flow velocities in the deep vessels of the body can be measured, and turbulences can be identified. In the study of the kidneys, a combination of renally excreted contrast media and imaging provides within seconds insight into glomerular filtration in health and disease. These current possibilities, and their limitations, bring insight into the future potential of MRI.
1 The Physical Basis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 1.1 The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Effect.- 1.1.1 Boltzmann Distribution.- 1.1.2 Magnetic Susceptibility.- 1.1.3 The Resonance Phenomenon.- 1.2 Diffusion.- 1.3 Relaxation Mechanisms.- 1.3.1 T1 and T2 Relaxation.- 1.3.2 Interactions Producing Relaxation H.- 1.3.3 Paramagnetic Relaxation.- 1.3.4 Chemical Shift.- 1.4 Pulse Sequences.- 1.4.1 Free Induction Decay.- 1.4.2 Inversion Recovery.- 1.4.3 Spin Echo.- 1.4.4 Diffusion-Sensitive Pulse Sequences.- 1.4.5 A Mathematical Tool: The Fourier Transformation.- 1.4.6 Flow and Spin Phase Graphing.- 1.4.7 Chemical Shift Sequences.- 1.4.8 Gradient Echo Sequences.- 1.4.9 Gradient Echo Sequences for Measuring Flow.- 1.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 1.5.1 Slice Selection.- 1.5.2 Frequency Encoding.- 1.5.3 Phase Encoding.- 1.5.4 Multislice Imaging.- 1.5.5 Chemical Shift Artifacts and Chemical Shift Imaging.- References.- 2 Functional Aspects of the Cardiovascular System.- 2.1 Motion in the Cardiovascular System.- 2.1.1 Motion of Cardiac Walls and Valves.- 2.1.2 Motion of the Great Vessels.- 2.2 Flow.- 2.2.1 Shear Forces.- 2.2.2 Laminar and Turbulent Flow, the Reynolds Number.- 2.3 Hemodynamics.- 2.3.1 Flow in Veins and Arteries.- 2.3.2 Flow in the Cardiac Chambers.- 2.3.3 Microcirculation.- References.- 3 The Effects of Motion and Flow on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 3.1 Spin-Phase Phenomena.- 3.1.1 Spin-Phase Phenomena in Coherent Intravoxel Motion.- 3.1.2 Spin-Phase Phenomena in Incoherent Intravoxel Motion: Flow in Large Vessels and Intravascular Signal Loss.- 3.1.3 Spin-Phase Phenomena in Intravoxel Incoherent Motion: Flow in Small Vessels, Tissue Perfusion and Diffusion.- 3.1.4 Flow Measurements Using Spin-Phase Phenomena.- 3.1.5 Spin-Phase Effects: Summary.- 3.2 Slice Transition or “Time-of-Flight” Phenomena.- 3.2.1 High-Velocity Signal Loss.- 3.2.2 Entry Slice Phenomena.- 3.2.3 Flow Measurements Using Time-of-Flight Effects.- 3.3 MR Angiography.- 3.4 Pulsations of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Induced by Cardiac Motion.- 3.5 Image Artifacts Due to Physiologic Motion.- 3.5.1 “Ghost” Artifacts.- 3.5.2 Artifact Suppression Techniques.- 3.5.3 Spatial Misregistration.- 3.6 The Recognition of Flow Phenomena in Clinical Practice.- References.- 4 Cardiac Morphology and Function in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 4.1 Special Imaging Techniques in the Cardiovascular System and Cardiovascular Imaging Strategy.- 4.1.1 ECG Triggering in MRI.- 4.1.2 Angulation of Sections in Cardiac Imaging.- 4.1.3 Slice Ordering.- 4.1.4 Imaging Protocols.- 4.2 Normal Cardiac Morphology and Function in MRI.- 4.2.1 Cardiac Walls, Wall Thickness and Wall Motion.- 4.2.2 Chamber Volumetry.- 4.2.3 Valvular Motion.- 4.2.4 Coronary Arteries.- 4.2.5 Pericardium.- 4.2.6 Normal Appearance of the Intracavitary Blood Pool.- 4.3 Pathologic Cardiac Morphology and Function in MRI.- 4.3.1 Congenital Abnormalities.- 4.3.2 Coronary Artery Disease.- 4.3.3 Other Cardiomyopathies.- 4.3.4 Valvular Disease.- 4.3.5 Other Acquired Cardiac Disease.- 4.3.6 Pericardial Disease.- 4.3.7 Summary.- References.- 5 Vascular Morphology and Function in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 5.1 Normal Vascular Morphology and Function in MRI.- 5.1.1 Normal Arterial Anatomy and Arterial Flow Phenomena.- 5.1.2 Normal Venous Anatomy and Venous Flow Phenomena.- 5.2 Arterial Pathology.- 5.2.1 Congenital Malformations.- 5.2.2 Aneurysmatic Disease.- 5.2.3 Arterial Stenoses and Thromboses.- 5.3 Venous Pathology.- 5.3.1 Venous Collateral Circulation.- 5.3.2 Congenital Malformations.- 5.3.3 Venous Thrombosis, Stenosis, and Obstruction.- 5.3.4 Diseases of the Portosplenic Vessels.- 5.4 Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulas.- 5.5 Summary.- References.- 6 Renal Morphology and Function in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 6.1 Renal Anatomy and Physiology Pertinent to MRI.- 6.1.1 Renal Morphology.- 6.1.2 Renal Physiology.- 6.2 Technical Considerations in Renal MRI.- 6.2.1 Spin-Echo Imaging of the Kidneys.- 6.2.2 Gradient Echo Imaging of the Kidneys.- 6.2.3 Dynamic Gradient Echo Imaging Using Contrast Agents.- 6.3 Normal Morphology and Function of the Kidneys in MRI.- 6.3.1 Normal Renal Morphology in MRI.- 6.3.2 Normal Renal Function Studies with MRI.- 6.4 Pathologic Morphology and Function of the Kidneys in MRI.- 6.4.1 Renal Obstruction.- 6.4.2 Infectious and Noninfectious Renal Parenchymal Disease.- 6.4.3 Perirenal Fluid Collections.- 6.4.4 Cystic Renal Disease.- 6.4.5 Neoplasms.- 6.4.6 Trauma, Including Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy.- 6.4.7 Renal Transplants.- 6.4.8 Summary.- References.- Appendices.- Appendix A: Taylor Series Expansions.- Appendix B: Vector Manipulations.- Appendix C: More About the Fourier Transformation.- Appendix D: Phase Calculations.- Abbreviations.

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