The Emergence of Europe. The Italian Renaissance. The Northern Renaissance. The Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Reformation and the Wars of Religion. The Revival of Capitalism and the Expansion of Europe. The Struggle for Constitutional Government in England. Absolute Monarchy in France. The Emergence of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The Eighteenth-Century Struggle for Power. The Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment. Literature, Art and Music in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. The French Revolution. Napoleon, France and Europe. The Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe. Romanticism. Reform and Revolution in Great Britain and France. The Conservative Order in Central and Eastern Europe. The Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. Liberalism and Socialism. The Revolutions of 1848. National Unification in Italy and Germany. The Advance of Democracy in Great Britain, France and Italy. Autocratic Europe: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. Nineteenth-Century European Civilization. The Age of Imperialism. The Coming of the First World War. The First World War. Soviet Russia under Lenin and Stalin. Fascist Italy. Germany from Weimar to Hitler. Great Britain and France Between the Two World Wars. The Coming of the Second World War. The Second World War. The Cold War. The Western Democracies Since 1945. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Since 1945. The End of the European Empire. Twentieth-Century European Civilization.