Forest measurements (5th Ed.)

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Langue : Anglais

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This text is intended for introductory courses in forest measurements. Emphasis is on the measurement of timber, with detailed coverage on measuring products cut from tree boles, measuring attributes of standing trees, inventorying volumes of forest stands, and predicting growth of individual trees and stands of trees. Background information on statistial methods, sampling designs, land measurements, and use of aerial photographs is also provided. An introduction to assessing range, wildlife, water, and recreation resources associated with forested lands comprises the last chapter. The measurement principles and techniques discussed apply to any inventory that includes assessment of the tree overstory, regardless of whether the inventory is conducted for timber, range, wildlife, watershed, recreation, or other management objectives.
Preface 1 Introduction 1-1 Purpose of Book 1-2 Need for Measurements 1-3 Neasurement Cost Considerations 1-4 Abbreviations and Symbols Numerical Considerations 1-5 Scales of Measurement 1-6 Significant Digits and Rounding Off 1-7 English Versus Metric Systems Presenting Information 1-8 Preparation of Graphs 1-9 Preparation of Technical Reports 1-10 Reviews of Technical Literature Problems 2 Statistical Methods 2-1 Introduction 2-2 Bias, Accuracy, and Precision 2-3 Calculating Probabilities 2-4 Factorial Notation, Permutations, and Combinations Statistical Concepts 2-5 Analysis of Data 2-6 Populations, Parameters, and Variables 2-7 Frequency Distributions Statistical Computations 2-8 Mode, Median, and Mean 2-9 The Range and Average Deviation 2-10 Variance and Standard Deviation 2-11 Coefficient of Variation 2-12 Standard Error of the Mean 2-13 Confidence Limits 2-14 Covariance 2-15 Simple Correlation Coefficient 2-16 Expansion of Means and Standard Errors 2-17 Mean and Vairance of Linear Functions Simple Linear Regression 2-18 Definitions 2-19 A Linear Equation 2-20 A Sample Problem 2-21 Indicators of Fit 2-22 Regression Through the Origin 2-23 Hazards of Interpretation 2-24 Multiple Regression Problems References 3 Sampling Designs 3-1 Introduction 3-2 Sampling Versus Complete Enumeration 3-3 The Sampling Frame Simple Random and Systematic Sampling 3-4 Simple Random Sampling 3-5 Sampling Intensity 3-6 Effect of Plot Size on Variability 3-7 Systematic Sampling Stratified Random Sampling 3-8 Stratifying the Population 3-9 Proportional Allocation of Field Plots 3-10 Optimum Allocation of Field Plots 3-11 Sample Size for Stratified Sampling Regression and Ratio Estimation 3-12 Regression Estimation 3-13 Comparison of Regression Estimation to Simple Random Sampling 3-14 Ratio Estimation Double Sampling 3-15 Double Sampling with Regression and Ratio Estimators 3-16 Double Sampling for Stratification Cluster and Two-Stage Sampling 3-17 Cluster Sampling 3-18 Two-Stage Sampling Sampling for Discrete Variables 3-19 Simple Random Sampling for Attributes 3-20 Cluster Sampling for Attributes 3-21 Relative Efficiencies of Sampling Plans Problems References 4 Land Measurements 4-1 Applications of Surveying Measuring Distances 4-2 Pacing Horizontal Distances 4-3 Chaining Horizontal Distances 4-4 Methods of Tape Graduation 4-5 Electronic Distance Measurement Using Magnetic Compasses 4-6 Nomenclature of the Compass 4-7 Magnetic Declination 4-8 Allowance for Declination 4-9 Use of the Compass Area Determination 4-10 Simple Closed Traverse 4-11 Graphical Area Determination 4-12 DOT Grids 4-13 Planimeters 4-14 Transects 4-15 Topographic Maps Colonial Land Subdivision 4-16 Metes and Bounds Surveys The U.S. Public Land Survey 4-17 History 4-18 The Method of Subdivision 4-19 The 24-Mile Tracts 4-20 Townships 4-21 Establishment of Sections and Lots 4-22 Survey Field Notes 4-23 Marking Land Survey Lines Global Positioning Systems 4-24 Purpose of GPS 4-25 How GPS Works 4-26 GPS Accuracy 4-27 Differential Correction 4-28 GPS Data 4-29 GPS Receivers Problems References 5 Cubic Volume, Cord Measure, and Weight Scaling 5-1 Logs, Bolts, and Scaling Units 5-2 Computing Cross-Sectional Areas 5-3 Log Volumes and Geometric Solids 5-4 Scaling by the Cubic Foot 5-5 Inscribed Sqaure Timbers Measuring Stacked Wood 5-6 The Cord 5-7 Solid Contents of Stacked Wood 5-8 An Ideal Measure Weight Scaling of Pulpwood 5-9 The Appeal of Weight Scaling 5-10 Variations in Weight 5-11 Wood Density and Weight Ratios 5-12 Advantages of Weight Scaling Problems References 6 Log Rules, Scaling Practices, and Specialty Wood Products 6-1 Log Rules 6-2 General Features of Board-Foot Log Rules Derivation of Log Rules 6-3 Mill-Tally Log Rules 6-4 Board Foot-Cubic Root Ratios 6-5 Scribner Log Rule 6-6 Doyle Log Rule 6-7 International Log Rule 6-8 Overrun and Underrun 6-9 Board-Foot Volume Conversions Board-Foot Log Scaling 6-10 Scaling Straight, Sound Logs 6-11 Log Defects 6-12 Board-Foot Deduction Methods 6-13 Cull Percent Deduction Methods 6-14 Merchantable Versus Cull Logs.