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Crassulacean acid metabolism: biochemistry, ecophysiology & evolution (ecological studies:114), Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996 Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Evolution Coll. Ecological Studies, Vol. 114

Langue : Français

Coordonnateurs : Winter Klaus, Smith J.Andrew C.

Couverture de l’ouvrage Crassulacean acid metabolism: biochemistry, ecophysiology & evolution (ecological studies:114)
Biochemistry of carbon flow during Crassulacean acid metabolism. Environmental and developmental control of Crassulacean acid metabolism. Ecophysiology and evolution of Crassulacean acid metabolism. Crassulacean acid metabolism : current status and perspectives.
An Introduction to Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Biochemical Principles and Ecological Diversity.- Discovery of Dark CO2 Fixation.- Biochemistry.- Phenotypic Plasticity.- Ecophysiology and Species Diversity.- Conclusions.- References.- A: Biochemistry of Carbon Flow During Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Preface.- 1 Stoichiometric Nightmares: Studies of Photosynthetic O2 and CO2 Exchanges in CAM Plants.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Simultaneous Measurements of O2 and CO2Exchange Using an O2/CO2 Electrode System.- 1.3 Photosynthetic O2/CO2 Stoichiometry During C3 Photosynthesis in Phase IV.- 1.4 Photosynthetic O2/CO2 Exchanges During Deacidification in Phase III.- 1.5 Photosynthetic O2/CO2 Exchanges During Acidification in Phase I.- 1.6 Conclusions.- References.- 2 Alternative Carbohydrate Reserves Usedin the Daily Cycle of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 The Division of CAM Plants into Two Metabolic Groups.- 2.3 The Use of Soluble Sugars Versus Polysaccharides as a Carbohydrate Reserve.- 2.4 Sequences of Biochemical Reactions in the Daily Use of Hexoses Versus Starch in CAM.- 2.5 Bioenergetics in Different Groups of CAM Plants.- 2.6 Conclusions.- References.- 3 Roles of Circadian Rhythms, Light and Temperature in the Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Phosphorylation of PEPC in Intact Tissue.- 3.3 Properties and Regulation of PEPC Kinase and Phosphatase.- 3.4 Effects of Light and Temperature on PEPC-Kinase Activity.- 3.5 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Transport Across the Vacuolar Membrane in CAM Plants.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Osmotic and Ionic Relations of the Vacuole.- 4.2.1 Osmotic Characteristics.- 4.2.2 Ionic Characteristics.- 4.3 Malic Acid Accumulation in the Vacuole.- 4.3.1 Primary Active H+ Transport.- 4.3.2 Malate Transport into the Vacuole.- 4.3.3 Sodium Chloride Accumulation.- 4.4 Malic Acid Remobilization from the Vacuole.- References.- 5 The Tonoplast as a Target of Temperature Effects in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Possible Implications of the Temperature-Dependent Phase Behaviour of Tonoplast Lipids for CAM.- 5.3 Experimental Approaches.- 5.4 Outlook.- References.- 6 Regulation of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Kalanchoe pinnata as Studied by Gas Exchange and Measurements of Chlorophyll Fluorescence.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Control of Photosystem II and of Linear Electron Transport.- 6.3 Malate Decarboxylation.- 6.4 Photorespiration.- 6.5 pH-Sensitivity of Photosynthesis.- 6.6 Proton Transport Across the Tonoplast.- 6.7 Light-Dependent Cytosolic Alkalinization.- 6.8 Metabolic Regulation of CAM.- 6.9 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Energy Dissipation and the Xanthophyll Cycle in CAM Plants.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Energy Dissipation and the Xanthophyll Cycle.- 7.2.1 Relationship Between Zeaxanthin Accumulation and Energy Dissipation.- 7.2.2 Evidence in Support of Zeaxanthin’s Role in Energy Dissipation.- 7.2.2.1 Dithiothreitol, an Inhibitor of Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase.- 7.2.2.2 Energy Dissipation in Lichens.- 7.2.2.3 The Reduction State of Photosystem II.- 7.2.2.4 Energy Dissipation in the Absence of Excess Energy.- 7.3 The Xanthophyll Cycle and the Light Environment.- 7.3.1 Diurnal Changes Under Natural Conditions.- 7.3.2 Acclimation to Different Light Environments.- 7.4 Evidence from CAM Plants.- 7.4.1 Energy Dissipation in the Field.- 7.4.2 Acclimation.- 7.4.2.1 Low Light Versus High Light.- 7.4.2.2 Within a Leaf.- 7.4.3 Photoinhibition.- 7.5 Conclusions.- References.- B: Environmental and Developmental Control of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Preface.- 8 Factors Affecting the Induction of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Discovery of Induction of CAM in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum by Water Stress in Controlled Environments.- 8.3 Induction of CAM in a Natural Habitat.- 8.4 Acceleration of Vegetative and Reproductive Growth Under Long Days.- 8.5 Effect of Growth Conditions on Induction of CAM by High Salinity.- 8.6 O2 Evolution from Photosystem II and Net Rates of CO2 Uptake Before and After Induction of CAM.- 8.7 Eventual Induction of CAM Under Well-Watered Conditions.- 8.8 Conditions Resulting in Induction of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in the Absence of CAM.- 8.9 Conditions Resulting in Malate Synthesis in the Light in the Absence of CAM.- 8.10 Induction of CAM by Growth Regulators.- References.- 9 Transcriptional Activation of CAM Genes During Development and Environmental Stress.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 CAM Evolution.- 9.3 Life Cycle of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.- 9.4 Requisites for Environmental Stress Tolerance.- 9.4.1 Maintaining a Functional Chloroplast.- 9.4.2 Osmotic Adjustment.- 9.4.3 Magnitude of Stress-Induced Gene Expression.- 9.5. Regulation of CAM Gene Expression.- 9.5.1 Transcript Amounts.- 9.5.2 Transcription of CAM Genes.- 9.5.3 Analysis of Transcription Control.- 9.5.4 Transcription and mRNA Stability.- 9.6 Transduction Mechanisms of Environmental Stress.- 9.7 Genetics and Transformation of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.- 9.8 Perspectives.- References.- 10 Environmental Control of CAM Induction in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum - a Role for Cytokinin, Abscisic Acid and Jasmonate?.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 The Concept of Stress.- 10.3 Environmental or Developmental Control of CAM Induction?.- 10.3.1 CAM Induction in Well-Watered Plants.- 10.3.2 Relief from Stress.- 10.3.3 Leaf Water Content.- 10.3.4 The Role of the Roots.- 10.4 Modulation of PEPC and CAM Induction by Gowth Regulators.- 10.4.1 Abscisic Acid (ABA).- 10.4.2 Cytokinin.- 10.4.2.1 Cytokinin Treatment of Shoots.- 10.4.2.2 Cytokinin Treatment of Roots.- 10.4.3 Jasmonate.- 10.4.4 Combinations of Growth Regulators.- References.- 11 Regulation of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism by Water Status in the C3/CAM Intermediate Sedum telephium.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Characteristics of the C3-CAM Switch in Sedum telephium.- 11.3 Regulation of Malate Accumulation by Water Status in Sedum telephium.- 11.3.1 Relationship Between Water Status and Malate Accumulation.- 11.3.2 Effect of Water Deficit on PEPC and Malic Enzyme Capacity.- 11.3.3 Effect of Water Deficit on the Properties of PEPC.- 11.4 Conclusions and Speculations.- References.- 12 Putative Causes and Consequences of Recycling CO2 via Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Recycling of Respiratory CO2 During CAM in Tillandsia.- 12.3 Recycling of Respiratory CO2 During CAM-Cycling in Talinum.- 12.4 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 13 Ontogenetic Development of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism as Modified by Water Stress in Peperomia.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Experimental Plant Material.- 13.3 CAM in Peperomia.- 13.3.1 Distribution Among Species.- 13.3.2 Ontogenetic Expression of CAM.- 13.3.3 Modification of CAM Expression by Water Stress.- 13.3.4 Recovery of Full CAM Expression After Rewatering.- 13.4 Discussion of Water-Stress-Induced CAM Expression.- 13.4.1 General Effects.- 13.4.2 PEPC mRNA.- 13.4.3 PEPC Activity.- 13.4.4 Reversibility of the Water-Stress Response.- 13.5 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 14 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Leaves and Stems of Cissus quadrangularis.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Main Characteristics of Leaf and Stem.- 14.3 Gas Exchange.- 14.3.1 Stem Gas Exchange.- 14.3.2 Stem Gas Exchange Under Water Shortage.- 14.3.3 Leaf Gas Exchange.- 14.3.4 Leaf Gas Exchange Under Water Shortage.- 14.4 Nocturnal Accumulation of Malic Acid in Leaf and Stem.- 14.4.1 Nocturnal Accumulation of Malic Acid and Water Shortage.- 14.4.2 Plant Growth and Recovery from Water Stress.- 14.5 The Value of the Leaf.- References.- 15 Variations in the Phases of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Regulation of Carboxylation Patterns Determined by Carbon-Isotope-Discrimination Techniques.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Phases II and IV: General Characteristics.- 15.2.1 Expression of Phases II and IV.- 15.2.2 Physiological Regulation of Phases II and IV.- 15.2.3 Regulation of C3/C4 Carboxylation During Phases II and IV.- 15.3 Regulation of Daytime Photosynthesis in Facultative CAM Plants.- 15.3.1 Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.- 15.3.2 Sedum telephium.- 15.3.3 Clusia minor.- 15.4 Balance of C3/C4 Carboxylation in Facultative CAM Plants.- 15.5 Instantaneous Discrimination of Carbon Isotopes.- 15.5.1 General Principles.- 15.5.2 On-Line Discrimination in Tillandsia utriculata.- 15.5.3 On-Line Discrimination in Sedum telephium.- 15.5.4 On-Line Discrimination in Clusia minor.- 15.5.5 Carbon-Isotope Discrimination in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.- 15.6 Implications of Carbon Flow During Phases II and IV for C3/CAM Intermediates.- References.- C: Ecophysiology and Evolution of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Preface.- 16 High Productivity of Certain Agronomic CAM Species.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Experimental Design for High Productivity.- 16.3 Productivity of Certain CAM Plants.- 16.4 Gas Exchange and Biochemical Variations Among Photosynthetic Pathways.- 16.5 Conclusions.- References.- 17 Features of Roots of CAM Plants.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Anatomy and Morphology.- 17.2.1 Monocotyledons — Agaves and Orchids.- 17.2.2 Dicotyledons — Cacti.- 17.3 Distribution in Soil.- 17.4 Root: Shoot Ratios.- 17.5 Respiration and Carbon Costs.- 17.6 Water Uptake.- 17.6.1 Root Hydraulic Conductivity.- 17.6.2 Axial Conductivity.- 17.6.3 Radial Conductivity.- 17.6.4 Root Initiation and Abscission.- 17.7 Conclusions.- References.- 18 Aquatic CAM Photosynthesis.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Evidence of CAM Photosynthesis.- 18.3 Distribution of Aquatic CAM Plants.- 18.3.1 Aquatic CAM Species.- 18.3.2 Ecological Distribution of Aquatic CAM Plants.- 18.3.3 Questionable Aquatic CAM Species.- 18.4 Adaptive Significance of CAM in the Aquatic Environment.- 18.4.1 Seasonal Pool CAM Species.- 18.4.2 Lacustrine CAM Species.- 18.5 Aquatic CAM Plants in an Aerial Environment.- 18.6 Carbon-Isotope Discrimination.- 18.7 Conclusions.- References.- 19 Clusia: Plasticity and Diversity in a Genus of C3/CAM Intermediate Tropical Trees.- 19.1 Diversity.- 19.2 Plasticity.- 19.2.1 Gas Exchange.- 19.2.1.1 Availability of Water and Leaf-to-Air Water-Vapour Pressure Difference.- 19.2.1.2 Irradiance and Availability of Water.- 19.2.1.3 Temperature.- 19.2.1.4 Survey of Clusia Species.- 19.2.2 Metabolism.- 19.2.2.1 Carbohydrates.- 19.2.2.2 Organic Acids.- 19.3 The Ecophysiological Significance of Plasticity in Clusia.- 19.3.1 Ecological Amplitude of Clusia: Habitats and Life Forms.- 19.3.2 CO2 Acquisition.- 19.3.3 Accumulation of Organic Acids.- 19.4 Regulation of Plastic Responses.- 19.5 Plasticity and Diversity.- References.- 20 Seasonal Changes in Daytime Versus Nighttime CO2 Fixation of Clusia uvitana In Situ.- 20.1 Introduction.- 20.2 Seasonal Changes in the Expression of CAM . ..- 20.3 Short-Term Changes in the Expression of CAM.- 20.4 The Effect of Leaf Ontogeny.- 20.5 Correlation Between Amax and 24-h Carbon Gain.- 20.6 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 21 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Genus Kalanchoe: Ecological, Physiological and Biochemical Aspects.- 21.1 Introduction.- 21.2 Results of ?13C Surveys.- 21.2.1 CAM in Relation to Intragenic Taxonomy and Growth Forms.- 21.2.2 Ecological Aspects.- 21.2.3 CAM Evolution in the Genus Kalanchoë.- 21.3 Experimental Approaches.- 21.3.1 Comparison of CAM Behaviour.- 21.3.2 Regulation of CAM: Studies with Epiphytic Species.- 21.4 Conclusions.- References.- 22 Carbon-and Hydrogen-Isotope Discrimination in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- 22.1 Introduction.- 22.2 Basic Principles.- 22.3 Correlations Between ?13C and ?D Values?.- 22.4 Differences in ?13C and ?D Values Between Different Organs and Tissues.- 22.5 ?13C and ?D Values of Parasites on CAM Plants.- 22.5.1 Holoparasites.- 22.5.2 Hemiparasites.- 22.5.3 The Isotopic Fate of Deuterium in Parasites.- 22.6 ?13C and ?D Values of Nectar.- 22.7 Conclusions.- References.- 23 Evolutionary Aspects of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Crassulaceae.- 23.1 Introduction.- 23.2 Taxonomy of the Crassulaceae.- 23.3 Evolutionary Studies of CAM in the Crassulaceae.- 23.4 Evolution of CAM in Sedum and Aeonium.- 23.4.1 Sedum.- 23.4.2 Aeonium.- 23.5 Conclusions.- References.- 24 The Evolution of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- 24.1 Introduction.- 24.2 Selective Significance of CAM Traits in Terrestrial Plants in the Context of Climates and Palaeoclimates.- 24.3 Selective Significance of CAM Traits in Aquatic Plants in the Context of Climates and Palaeoclimates.- 24.4 Mechanistic Considerations of the Evolution of CAM.- References.- D.- 25 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Current Status and Perspectives.- 25.1 Biochemistry and Energetics.- 25.1.1 Dark CO2 Fixation and Vacuolar Storage.- 25.1.2 Mitochondrial Metabolism and Carbon Fluxes in Phase III.- 25.2 Environmental and Developmental Control.- 25.2.1 Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.- 25.2.2 Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.- 25.2.3 C3 to CAM Shifts in Other Species.- 25.2.4 Field Studies.- 25.3 Growth and Productivity.- 25.3.1 Potential Productivity.- 25.3.2 Elevated CO2.- 25.3.3 Light-Use and Energetics of the 24-h CAM Cycle.- 25.3.4 CAM versus C3: Costs and Benefits.- 25.4 Evolutionary Origins.- References.- 26 Taxonomic Distribution of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- References.
This book gives a detailed overview of the major advances in understanding the biology of Crassulacean acid metabolism in (CAM) plants, from their biochemistry and molecular biology to fundamental aspects of their physiology, ecology and evolution.

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