This document is one of four volumes comprising the combined food additive specifications prepared by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) during sixty-five meetings held from 1956 to 2005. The first three volumes are the specifications themselves and Volume 4 provides a reference for the analytical methods and test procedures used in and referenced by the specifications. Note that specifications for flavouring agents are not included in this published version, but may be found in an online searchable database at the FAO Web site. The specifications in this document provide information on the identity and purity of additives used directly in foods or in food production. The three main objectives of these specifications are to identify the additive that has been subjected to testing for safety, to ensure that the additive is of the quality required for use in food or in processing, and to reflect and encourage good manufacturing practice. This publication will be useful to all those who work with or are interested in food additives and their safe use in food.