THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES USED IN AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE. A. Plant Growth: Plant Propagation. Plant Population. Leaf Area Index. The Root System. The Nitrogen Cycle. B. Arid Regions: Plant / Soil / Water Relationships. Plant Reaction to Stress. Crop Management in Arid Regions. C. Soil. Saline Soils. Soil Analysis. Acid Soils / pH value. Trace Elements. D. Fertiliser. E. The Plant: Annual / Biennial / Perennial. Botanical Classification. Cultivar / Variety. Photosynthesis / Respiration. Transpiration. Wilting. Shade Plants / Sun Plants. Vegetative Reproduction. Determinate / Indeterminate. Day length / Photoperiodism. Growth Period. Tuber. Rogue Plant. Volunteer Plants. F. The Seed: Germination. Seed Rate. Hybrids. Composite Varieties. Inoculation / Nitrogen Fixation. Seed Treatment (Dressing). Vernalisation. G. Crops: Cropping Calendar. Break Crops. Catch Crops. Climbing Crops. Companion Crops. Cover Crops. Pioneer Crops. Smother Crops. Shade Crops. H. Farming Systems: Rotation. Mixed Cropping. Alley Cropping. Green Manure. Mulch. Silage. Hay. Land Area Measurement. I. The Harvest: Maturity. Yield. Haulm. J. Insects. K. Diseases. L. Weeds. M. Tools. N. Irrigation. O. Storage. DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAIN FOOD CROPS. A. Cereals: Barley, Buckwheat, Maize, Millet, Oats, Rice, Sorghum, Teff , Wheat . B. Legumes: Broad Bean / Horse Bean / Field Bean, Chickpea, Cowpea, Field Pea, Groundnut / Peanut, Haricot / French Bean, Lentil, Lima Bean, Mungbean, Pigeon Pea, Soybean, Vetch / Grass Pea / Chickling Pea . C. Oilseeds: Castor, Linseed, Niger Seed, Sesame, Sunflower. D. Root Crops: Cassava /Manioc, Irish Potato, Sweet Potato, Taro, Yam. E. Vegetables: Cabbage, Carrot, Cucurbits, Okra , Onion , Pepper, Tomato. F. Fruits: Avocado, Banana, Citrus, Guava, Mango, Papaya / Pawpaw, Watermelon. G. Under exploited Crops: Amaranth, Bambara Groundnut, Buffalo Gourd, Leucaena, Lupin, Tepary Bean, Winged Bean / Four-angled Bean. Naming and Classification of Food Crops. Seed Purchase Procedures. Conversion Tables and Statistics. Some issues to consider when planning or assessing agricultural projects.