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From bridges and tunnels to nuclear waste repositories, structures require that soils maintain their design engineering properties if the structures are to reach their projected life spans. The same is true for earth dams, levees, buffers, barriers for landfills, and other structures that use soils as engineered materials. Yet soil, a natural resource, continues to change as a result of natural and anthropogenic stresses. As the discipline of soil properties and behaviours matures, new tools and techniques are making it possible to study these properties and behaviours in more depth. Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour examines changes in soil properties and behaviour caused by short- and long-term stresses from anthropogenic activities and environmental forces. Introducing new concepts of soil behaviour, soil maturation, and soil functionality, it integrates soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics as vital factors in soil engineering. The book focuses on environmental soil behaviour, with particular attention to two main inter-related groups of soilenvironment issues. The first is the use of soil as an environmental tool for management and containment of toxic and hazardous waste materials. The second is the impact of ageing and weathering processes and soil contamination on the properties and behaviour of soils, especially those used in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering projects. To determine short- and long-term soil quality and soil functionality, the authors emphasize the need to be aware of the nature of the stressors involved as well as the kinds of soil-changing processes that are evoked. This book takes a first step toward a much-needed transdisciplinary effort to develop a broader and deeper understanding of what happens to soil and how we can determine and quantify the effect of biogeochemical processes. It offers a timely resource for the study of soil properties and behaviours, effects of environmental changes, and remediation of contaminated soil.
Origin and Function of SoilsIntroductionSoil Origin and FormationSoil ClassificationBasic Soil FunctionsConcluding RemarksReferencesNature of SoilsIntroductionClay MineralsNonclay MineralsSoil Organic MatterSoil ParticlesSoil StructureInterparticle BondsMicroorganisms in SoilsLaboratory DeterminationsConcluding RemarksReferencesSoil---Water SystemsIntroductionWater RetentionClay---Water InteractionsSoil-Water Energy CharacteristicsWater Uptake and TransferChemical Reactions in PorewaterPhysical Reactions and HydrationConcluding RemarksReferencesSwelling ClaysIntroductionSwelling PhenomenaWater Uptake and SwellingWater MovementConcluding RemarksReferencesStressors, Impacts, and Soil FunctionalityIntroductionStressor Sources and StressorsStressor ImpactsSoil Functionality Index (SFI)Time-Related Change of FunctionalityConcluding RemarksReferencesMechanical Properties IntroductionMechanical AttributesConcept of Effective StressShear Strength of SoilsMechanisms in Granular Soil StrengthCohesive Soil StrengthPorewater PressureShear Resistance MechanismsCompressibility and ConsolidationCreep BehaviourConcluding RemarksReferencesThermal and Hydraulic PropertiesIntroductionThermal PropertiesWater Movement under Thermal GradientHydraulic PropertiesSwelling Clay Hydraulic ConductivityVapour and Gas ConductivitiesConcluding RemarksReferencesSorption Properties and MechanismsIntroductionSolutes, Contaminants, and PollutantsContaminant Interactions with Soil ParticlesContaminant Sorption MechanismsLaboratory Determination of PartitioningPartitioning and Soil CompositionConcluding RemarksReferencesMobility and Attenuation of ContaminantsIntroductionInteractions and MobilityMobility and AttenuationMicrostructure and Diffusive TransportAttenuation of Organic ChemicalsConcluding RemarksReferencesEnvironmental Soil BehaviourIntroductionSoil Evolution and Ageing ProcessesTime-Related Changes and Soil EvolutionBiodegradation and Biotransformation of ContaminantsFreeze---Thaw Seasonal ImpactConcluding RemarksReferences