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Large producers have started to use gas injection for their applications and in the future it is predicted that this trend will increase.
This book is the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of this technique, which is rapidly increasing in importance and usage in the natural gas and petroleum industry.
The authors, a group of the most well-known and respected in the field, discuss, in a series of papers, this technology and related technologies as to how they can best be used by industry to creating a safer, cleaner environment.
Acid Gas Injection: Past, Present, and Future (John J. Carroll).
Section 1: Data and Correlation.
1. Equilibrium Water Content Measurements For Acid Gas Mixtures (R. A. Marriott, E. Fitzpatrick, F. Bernard, H. H. Wan, K. L. Lesage, P. M. Davis, and P. D. Clark).
1.2 Available Literature Data.
1.3 Equilibration Vessels / Techniques.
1.4 Water Analysis.
1.5 Sampling Issues for Analytic Methods.
1.6 Some Recent Results and Future Directions.
2. The Performance of State of the Art Industrial Thermodynamic Models for the Correlation and Prediction of Acid Gas Solubility in Water (Marco A. Satyro and James van der Lee).
2.2 Thermodynamic Modeling.
2.3 Water Content.
2.4 Conclusions and Recommendations.
3. The Research on Experiments and Theories about Hydrates in High-Sulfur Gas Reservoirs (Liu Jianyi, Zhang Guangdong, Ye Chongqing, Zhang Jing and Liu Yanli).
3.2 Experimental Tests.
3.3 Thermodynamic Model.
3.4 Experimental Evaluation.
4. An Association Model for the Correlation of the Solubility of Elemental Sulfur in Sour Gases (Bian Xiaoqing, Du ZHimin and Chen Jing).
4.2 Derivation of an Association Model.
4.3 Calculation and Analysis of Solubility.
5. Properties of CO2 Relevant To Sequestration - Density (Sara Anwar and John J. Carroll).
5.2 Review and Correlation.
6. The Experimental Study of the Effect of the CO2 Content on Natural Gas Properties at Gathering Conditions (Du Jianfen, Hu Yue, Guo Ping, Deng Lei, and Yang Suyun).
6.2 Experimental Test Process.
6.3 Experimental Principles and Methods.
6.4 Experimental Conditions.
6.5 Analysis of Experimental Results.
Section 2: Process Engineering.
7. Dehydration of Acid Gas Prior to Injection (Eugene W. Grynia, John J. Carroll, and Peter J. Griffin).
7.2 Acid Gas Phase Diagrams.
7.3 Water Content of Acid Gas.
7.4 Water Content of Acid Gas for Different Isotherms.
7.5 Effect of Impurities on Water Content of Acid Gas.
7.6 Acid Gas Dehydration.
7.7 Hydrates of Acid Gas.
8. Limitations And Challenges Associated With The Disposal Of Mercaptan-Rich Acid Gas Streams By Injection - A Case Study (Felise Man and John J. Carroll).
8.1 Properties of Mercaptans.
8.2 Limitations of Process Simulation Tools and Process Design.
8.3 Case Study.
9. Acid Gas: When to Inject and When to Incinerate (Audrey Mascarenhas).
9.1 Incineration Technology.
10. Dynamics of Acid Gas Injection Well Operation (R. Mireault, R. Stocker, D. Dunn, and M. Pooladi-Darvish).
10.2 Effects of Gas Composition.
10.3 Determining Wellhead Operating Pressure.
10.4 Computing Wellbore Pressure Changes.
10.5 Example 1.