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This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues, as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together all the physical vapor deposition techniques. Two entirely new areas receive full treatment: chemical mechanical polishing which helps attain the flatness that is required by modern lithography methods, and new materials used for interconnect dielectric materials, specifically organic polyimide materials.
Recent Changes in the Semiconductor Industry. Cost of Device Fabrication. Technology Trends, Chip Size, Performance, and Moore's Law. Deposition Technologies and Applications: Introduction and Overview. Importance of Deposition Technology in Modern Fabrication Processes. Classification of Deposition Technologies. Overview of Various Thin Film Deposition Technologies. Criteria for the Selection of a Deposition Technology for Specific Applications. Summary and Perspective for the Future. Silicon Epitaxy by Chemical Vapor Deposition. Theory of Silicon Epitaxy by CVD. Silicon Epitaxy Process Chemistry. Commercial Reactor Geometries. Theory of Chemical Vapor Deposition. Process Adjustments. Equipment Considerations for Silicon Epitaxy. Other Equipment Considerations. Defects in Epitaxy Layers. Safety. Key Technical Issues. New Materials Technology for Silicon Epitaxy. Low Temperature Epitaxy. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide Films. Overview of Atmospheric Pressure CVD. Plasma Enhanced CVD. Properties of Dielectric Films. New Deposition Technologies. Future Directions for CVD of Dielectric Films. Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. Applications of MOCVD. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sources Used in MOCVD. Growth Mechanisms, Conditions, and Chemistry. System Design and Construction. Future Developments. Feature Scale Modeling. Components of Etch and Deposition Modeling. Etch Modeling. Etch Examples. Deposition Modeling. Deposition Examples. Real Life. The Role of Metrology and Inspection to Semiconductor Processing. Introduction to Metrology and Inspection. Metrology and Inspection Trends. Theory of Operation, Equipment Design Principles, Main Applications, and Strengths and Limitations of Metrology and Inspection Principles. Contamination Control, Defect Detection and Yield Enhancement in Gigabit Manufacturing. Contamination and Defect Goals for ULSI Devices. Sources of Particles. Contamination and Defect Detection: Tools of the Trade. Advanced Techniques for Trace Contamination Monitoring. Substrate Surface Preparation Techniques. Challenges to ULSI (Gigabit) Contamination Control. Process Evolution. Evolution of Circuit Based Electrical Defect Detection. Sputtering and Sputter Deposition. Physical Sputtering Theory. Plasmas and Sputtering Systems. Deposition Rates and Efficiencies. Reactive Sputter Deposition. Sputtering Systems. Laser and Electron Beam Assisted Processing. Beam Assisted CVD of Thin Films. Submicron Pattern Delineation with Large Area Glow Discharge Pulsed Electron Beams. Beam Induced Thermal Processes. Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Equipment and Practice. The Basic MBE Process. Competing Deposition Technologies. MBE Grown Devices. MBE Deposition Equipment. Principles of Operation. Recent Advances. Future Developments. Ion Beam Deposition. Overview of Ion Beam Applications. Ion Beam Probing. Substrate Cleaning with Ion Beams. Applications. Chemical Mechanical Polishing. Processing. Polish Equipment. History. Innovations. Automation. Wafer/Pad Relative Motion. Future Challenges. Organic Dielectrics in Multilevel Metallization of Integrated Circuits. General Introduction. Historical Perspective. Fundamental Chemistry of Organic Dielectrics. Processing of Polymer Films. Process Integration with Organic Dielectrics. Reliability. Performance Advantages of Organic Dielectrics. Performance, Processing, and Lithography Trends. Scaling the Transistor. Low Resistance: Change to Copper-Based Metallurgy. Trend to Low K Materials. Lithography and Planarization. Challenges to Contamination and Cleaning. Summary. Index.
New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries.