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Most chapters include "Overview," "Summary," "Questions for Consideration," and "Notes." 1. Socio-Economic Structure, Human Needs, and Mutual Responsibility. The Impact of Social and Economic Structures. Defining Social Welfare and Social Work. The American Myth of the Hero. The Authors' Perspective. 2. Social Values and Social Welfare. Modern Views of Humanity. Self-Actualization versus Irritation Response Theories. Economics and Human Motivation. An Overview of History. Ancient Cultures. Christianity. Holy Poverty and Expectations of the Wealthy. Eastern Cultures. 3. Social Values and Social Welfare: England from the Middle Ages Onward. The Early Middle Ages. The Middle Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages to Elizabethan Poor Laws. Work and Religion. The Poor Laws. Speenhamland. The Workhouse. The Poor Law of 1834. Principles of the Poor Laws. 4. Social Values and Social Welfare: The American Experience I. American Poor Law Mentality. The Early Spanish Influence, The Mexicans, and Other Latinos. Voluntary Mutual Aid Efforts. Mutual Aid among African Americans. The American Frontier: The Myth and Values. Native Americans and U.S. History. The Federal Role in Social Welfare. The Freedmen's Bureau. Veterans and a Suspension of the Ethic. Social Darwinism. The Coming of Social Insurance. Society, Social Values, and Modern Views of Human Nature. 5. America, Poverty, Two Paths: The American Experience II. Three Discoveries of Poverty. The War on Poverty. The "Skirmish" Against Poverty. Families, Children, and Poverty. The Poor Laws Today. Human Nature and the American Dream. 6. Concepts for Social Welfare. What Is Social Welfare? Social Policy, Social Services, and Social Work. Ideology, Social Policy, and Government Intervention. The Importance of Fiscal and Monetary Policy. An International Economy. A Second Welfare System: Corporate Welfare. 7. Examining a Social Welfare Program: Structural Components, Alternative Program Characteristics, and Evaluation. Structural Components. Alternative Program Characteristics. Evaluating the Program. 8. The Welfare Society and Its Clients. Who Is a Client of Social Welfare? What Is Poverty? A Description of the Poor. Income and Wealth Inequality. The Effect of Some Government Programs. The Near-Poor and Expectations. Other Views of Poverty. Relative Inequality. Lack of Power, Access, and Inclusion. Strategies for Fighting Poverty. Ideology Revisited. 9. Current Social Welfare Programs: Economic Security. Social Insurance Programs. Income Support Programs. 10. Social Welfare Programs: Sustaining the Quality of Life. Health Care Programs. Nutrition Programs. Low-Income Home Energy Assistance. Housing. Veterans' Benefits. Employment Programs. Personal Social Services. Mental Health Services. Corrections. 11. Nonprofit and Private Social Welfare. Early Patterns. The Nonprofit Sector. The Proprietary Private For-Profit Organization. Services of the Nonprofit and Private Sectors. Getting and Spending. Private and Nonprofit Agencies as Social Welfare Programs. A Point of View. Leadership, Class, and Gender. Private and Public Spheres. Marketplace and the Nonmarket Domain. Toward the Future. 12. Social Work: The Emergence of a Profession. The Workers of "Good Works." The Process of Professionalization. A Brief History of Practice and Methods. Development of the Professional Association. Social Work with Groups. Community Organization and Social Planning. Toward a Unified Profession. 13. Social Work: Functions, Context, and Issues. The Purpose of Social Work. The Professional Within the Organizational Context. The Professional Within Complex Organizations. Society, the Functions of Social Work, and Services for the People. The Two Tracks of Social Work: Cause and Function. Generic-Specific Social Work. Professionals and Volunteers. Racism, Sexism, and a Pluralistic Society. 14. Social Trends Affecting Soial Welfare. Growth, Demography, and Resources: International Perspectives. Growth and Demography: The United States. Productivity and the Service Economy. A National Society. Ethnicity and Pluralism. Gender. Gays and Lesbians. The New Property. Additional Societal Issues Affecting Social Welfare. 15. Alternative Programs to Meet Social Welfare. Female Heads of Household, Children, and Poverty. The Aging and Long-Term Home Health Care. Immigration. Persons with Disabilities. Alternatives Facing the Practitioner. Where We Are. Two Scenarios. Our Proposal. Appendix: Sources of Other Information. Index.