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This book discusses the diversity of mechanisms by which prey avoid attack by predators and explores how such defensive mechanisms have evolved through natural selection. It considers how potential prey avoid detection, how they make themselves unprofitable to attack, how they signal their unprofitability, and how other species have exploited these signals. Using carefully selected examples drawn from a wide range of species and ecosystems, the authors present a critical analysis of the most important published works in the field. Illustrative examples of camouflage, mimicry and warning signals regularly appear in undergraduate ecology textbooks, but these subjects are rarely considered in depth. This book summarises some of the latest research into these fascinating adaptations, developing mathematical models where appropriate and making recommendations for the most urgently needed outstanding areas of enquiry.
AVOIDING DETECTION, 1: Background Matching, 2: Disruptive Coloration, 3: Countershading, 4: Transparency and Silvering, SIGNALLING UNPROFITABILITY, 5: Secondary Defences, 6: Signalling to Predators, 7: The Form and Function of Warning Displays, 8: The Initial Evolution of Warning Displays, 9: The Evolution and Maintenance of Mullerian Mimicry, DECEIVING PREDATORS, 10: The Evolution and Maintenance of Batesian Mimicry, 11: The Relationship Between Batesian and Mullerian Mimicry, 12: Other Forms of Adaptive Resemblance, 13: Deflection and Startling of Predators, 14: General Conclusions, Appendix 1: A summary of mathematical and computer models that deal with Mullerian mimcry, Appendix 2: A summary of mathematical and computer models that deal with Batesian mimcry