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Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal processing technology, mainly used for pasteurization of liquid foods. It has advantages compared to thermal pasteurization in its potential to preserve the sensory quality and nutrient content of the foods. It also has potential advantages over other non-thermal processes since it is a continuous process, and both the capital costs and operating costs are lower than some other non-thermal processes. The theory, microbial, enzymatic, quality, and process related issues have been researched. However, there is no compilation of all of this accumulated knowledge and know-how in a single volume.
Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: Applications for Food brings into one volume the diverse aspects and the accumulated knowledge regarding DPCD. International experts in the Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide applications to foods have contributed in their areas of expertise to create synergy that clarifies concepts and reveals potential application areas and future direction of research. Positioned as an industry reference book, Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: Applications for Food will appeal to food scientists, food technologists, food engineers, food safety, quality and production managers, government officials, researchers and regulators, extension specialists, equipment and packaging suppliers, and particularly professionals in the juice, dairy and beverage industries.
1. Introduction: Overview of the technology, its potential and promise.
The Dense Phase CO2 (DPCD) technology is a non-thermal processing method with much promise in the processing of foods and agricultural materials. The strengths, differences from other non-thermal methods, and weaknesses are explored..
The history of the application of pressurized CO2 to foods and agricultural materials are covered, starting with supercritical CO2, and modified atmosphere applications..
3. Thermodynamics of solution of CO2 with effects of pressure and temperature.
Solubility of CO2 in aqueous foods is critical. Coverage includes: mechanisms, thermodynamics, other solutes affecting the solubility, carbonation in the beverage industry, phase equilibria..
4. Effects on vegetative cells.
There are many mechanisms proposed for the inactivation of vegetative cells by DPCD. Coverage includes exploration of these mechanisms, with examples from the literature..
5. Effects on spores.
DPCD can inactivate or help in the germination and therefore easier inactivation of spores. Mechanisms and examples from the literature are covered..
6. Effects on enzymes.
Many enzymes are affected by DPCD. There are reports of increase in activity in some cases, and structural changes in the enzymes. There are other cases where inactivation occurs. Possible mechanisms and examples from the literature are given..
7. General effects on food quality.
The promise of a non-thermal technology is its protection of quality attributes. Effects on flavor, color, aroma, pH, viscosity, etc. of foods are given in the literature. These effects are reviewed..
8. Applications to juices.
Specific applications to juices are discussed, including shelf life extension, special considerations for each juice, advantages and disadvantages of the technology..
9. Applications to dairy.
Dairy based liquid foods have applications with DPCD. The quality, shelf-life extension, and special considerations are discussed..
10. Applications to other beverages.
Beer, wines, kava kava, etc. are other beverages that benefit from DPCD technology. Their unique requirements and challenges are explored..
11. Applications to the pharmaceuticals.
DPCD can be used in the modification of molecules useful in the pharmaceutical industry. Precipitation of proteins, aerosol formation, size control, etc. are discussed.
The current state-of-the-art in DPCD technology will be discussed. Commercially available equipment will be reviewed..
13. Outlook and unresolved issues.
The barriers to commercialization, the technical challenges, and areas for further research will be discussed..
The author(s) of each chapter will be determined after the chapters are agreed upon.
Potential contributors include:.