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The past three decades has seen a tremendous effort in cavitation research. Several books and review articles have addressed general aspects of bubble dynamics and cavitation in Newtonian fluids but there is, at present, no book devoted to the elucidation of these phenomena in non-Newtonian fluids. The proposed book is intended to provide such a resource, its significance being that non-Newtonian fluids are far more prevalent in the rapidly emerging fields of biomedicine and bioengineering, in addition to being widely encountered in the process industries. It is essential to understand that the effects of non-Newtonian properties on bubble dynamics and cavitation are fundamentally different from those of Newtonian fluids. Arguably the most significant effect arises from the dramatic increase in viscosity of polymer solutions in an extensional flow, such as that generated about a spherical bubble during its growth or collapse phase. Specifically, polymers, which are randomly-oriented coils in the absence of an imposed flow-field, are pulled apart and may increase their length by three orders of magnitude in the direction of extension. As a result, the solution can sustain much greater stresses, and pinching is stopped in regions where polymers are stretched. Furthermore, many biological fluids, such as blood, synovial fluid, and saliva, have non-Newtonian properties and can display significant viscoelastic behaviour. Therefore, this is a "hot" topic because cavitation is playing an increasingly important role in the development of modern ultrasound and laser-assisted surgical procedures. This field is as interdisciplinary as any, and the numerous disciplines involve have and will continue to overlook and reinvent each others' work. Our hope in this book is to help researchers think intuitively about the diverse physics of these systems, to attempt to bridge the various communities involved, and to convey the interest, elegance, and variety of physical phenomena that manifest themselves on the micrometer and microsecond scales.
1. Non-Newtonian Fluids2. Nucleation3. Bubble Dynamics4. Hydrodynamic Cavitation5. Cavitation Erosion6. Cardiovascular Cavitation7. Cavitation in other Surgical Applications
This book is suitable for graduate and undergraduate students, researchers in Mechanical Engineering, Researchers in Chemical Engineering and Researchers in Biomedical Engineering.