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Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans, a collection of original articles on self-awareness in monkeys, apes, humans, and other species, focuses on controversies about how to measure self-awareness, which species are capable of self-awareness and which are not, and why. Several chapters focus on the controversial question of whether gorillas, like other great apes and human infants, are capable of mirror self-recognition (MSR) or whether they are anomalously unable to do so. Other chapters focus on whether macaque monkeys are capable of MSR. The focus of the chapters is both comparative and developmental: several contributors explore the value of frameworks from human developmental psychology for comparative studies. This dual focus - comparative and developmental - reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the volume, which brings together biological anthropologists, comparative and developmental psychologists, and cognitive scientists from Japan, France, Spain, Hungary, New Zealand, Scotland, and the United States.
Part I. Comparative and Developmental Approaches to Self-Awareness: 1. Expanding dimensions of the self: through the looking glass and beyond, 2. Myself and me, 3. Self recognition: research strategies and experimental design, 4. From self-recognition to theory-of-mind, 5. Mutual awareness in primate communication: a Gricean approach, 6. Multiplicities of self, 7. Contributions of imitation and role playing games to the construction of self in primates, Part II. The Development of Self in Human Infants and Children: 8. Detection of self: the perfect algorithm, 9. Social imitation and the emergence of a mental model of self, 10. Minds, bodies and persons: young children?s understanding of the self and others as reflected in imitation and ?theory of mind?, Part III. Self-Awareness in Great Apes: 11. Social and cognitive factors in chimpanzee and gorilla mirror behavior and self-recognition, 12. The comparative and developmental study of self-recognition and imitation: the importance of social factors, 13. Shadows and mirrors: alternative avenues to the development of self-recognition in chimpanzees, 14. Symbolic representation of possession in a chimpanzee, 15. Self-awareness in bonobos and chimpanzees: a comparative perspective, 16. ?Me Chantek?: the development of self-awareness in a signing orangutan, 17. Self-recognition and self-awareness in lowland gorillas, 18. How to create self-recognizing gorillas (but don?t try it on macaques), 19. Incipient mirror self recognition in zoo gorillas and chimpanzees, 20. Do gorillas recognize themselves on television?, Part IV. Mirrors and Monkeys, Dolphins and Pigeons: 21. The monkey in the mirror: a strange conspecific, 22. The question of mirror-mediated self-recognition in apes and monkeys: some new results and reservations, 23. Mirror behavior in macaques, 24. Evidence of self-awareness in the bottlenose dolphin, 25. Mirror self-recognition in bottlenose dolphins: implications for comparative study of highly dissimilar species, 26. Further reflections on mirror-usage by pigeons: lessons from Winnie-the-Pooh and Pinocchio, too, Part V. Epilogue: 27. Evolving self-awareness, Author index, Subject index.